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NO. 2 





The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London 
The University of Toronto Press, Toronto 5, Canada 

© 1952 and 1961 by The University of Chicago. 

Published 1952. 

Second Edition Published 1961. 









A. Definition of Old Akkadian 


B. Pre-Sargonic Sources 


C. Sargonic Sources 


D # Ur 

III Sources 




A. Logograms 


B. Syllabograms 



Writing of Vowels, "Weak 11 

Consonants, and 

the Like 



Writing of Stops and Sibilants 



General Remarks 


C. Auxiliary Marks 


D. Signs 


E. Syllabary 





A. Phonology 






Serai -vowels 



Vowels and Diphthongs 


B. Pronouns 



Personal Pronouns 


a. Independent 


b. Suffixal 


i. With Nouns 


id. With Verbs 



Demonstrative Pronouns 







Comparative Discussion 



Possessive Pronoun 



Interrogative Pronouns 



Indefinite Pronoun 




C. Nouns 





a. Gender 


b. Number 


c. Case Endings 


d. Mimation 



Construct State 



Predicate State 



Indeterminate State 



Nouns before Pronominal Suffixes 



Adjectives and Participles 





D. Verbs 





a. Preterit and Present-Future 


i. Stems I and 17 


(a.) Prefixes before Consonants 
Other than * „ 

(b.) Prefixes with Verbs 
Primae D . _ 2 

(c.) Prefixes with Verbs 
Primae % ^ 

(d.) Prefixes with Verbs Primae 

(e.) Prefixes with Verbs Priinae 

ii. Stems II and III 

b. Imperative 

c, Stative 

2. Verbal Nouns 

a. Active Participle 
be Passive Participle 
c. Infinitive 

3. Moods 

a. Indicative 
be Allative 









c # Subjunctive 169 

d» Imperative 171 

e, Precative 172 

f. Prohibitive 173 
k* Steins 17li 
5. Classes 175 

a. Strong Verbs 175 

b. Geminates 178 

c. Verbs Primae n 179 
d» Quadriconsonantals 181 
e. Weak Verbs 181 

i. Verbs Primae \_o 181 

ii. Verbs Primae '- - 182 

iii. Verbs Primae ^ 183 

iv. Verbs Primae *„ 185 

v. Verbs Primae .' 185 

vi. Verbs Secundae K* 185 

vii. Verbs Secundae K_^ 186 

viii. Verbs Secundae ', 187 

ix. Verbs Secundae '_ 188 

x. Verbs Secundae D 189 

xi. Verbs Tertiae ^^ 189 

xii. Verbs Tertiae »- - 190 

3dii, Verbs Tertiae > 6 190 

xiv. Verbs Tertiae >~ 191 

xv. Verbs Tertiae D 192 


A. Bibliography of Sargonic Royal Inscriptions 193 

B. Additions and Corrections 208 

C. Sign List of the Sargonic Period 218 



The present study of Old Akkadian writing and grammar is 
based on sources fully listed and discussed in the Glossary of 
Old Akkadian published in 1957 as MAD III. 

The sources are quoted in the measure of their relevance. 
Thus, under Writing , only the typical examples -ma-tura , ma-nangia , 
Ma-al-4cum are listed for the use of the common syllabic value 
ma (p. 93), but all the known examples are quoted for the use of 
the rare syllabic value ^a (pp. 88f.). Similarly, under Grammar , 
only the typical examples be-Ii , a-bi are found under the discus- 
sion of the common pronominal suffix of the first person Sg. (p. 
128), but all sources are listed under the discussion of the 
various forms of the pronominal suffix of the first person PI. 
(p. 129).. 

References to sources, published and unpublished, as well 
as a list of abbreviations, are to be found in MAD III. Refer- 
ences are quoted in this stucfcy only for occurrences which became 
available to me since the publication of MAD III and for non- 
Semitic proper names not t listed in MAD III. 

In MAD III will be found acknowledgments of the generous 
permission given me to quote -unpublished sources, as well as of 
the help received from various scholars in the interpretation of 
many difficult expressions. I am very happy to thank especially 
Messrs. Edmond Sollberger and William Hallo for suggestions and 
corrections received during the preparation of this edition. 

Immediately after the first edition of the Old Akkadian 
Writing and Grammar was sold out, soon after its publication in 
19i?2, the necessity to prepare a new, revised and much enlarged 
edition became apparent. The opportunity to publish a new 
edition was all the more welcome since the older edition con- 
tained a number of misreadings and inconsistencies which had 
crept into the manuscript when it was recopied, during my ab- 
sence, from Chicago and without my knowledge, because the original 
stencils had been spoiled as a result of the intense summer heat 
in Chicago. 

The new edition differs in several aspects from the first 


edition. While the bulk of the materials discussed and the order 
of presentation remains the same in the two editions, the second 
edition contains a large number of corrections and additions* 
The additions consist of new materials made available to me since 
the publication of the first edition, much enlarged attestation 
of evidence (especially in the case of the verb), and three new 
appendices. Since the manuscript of this edition was completed 
in the main about two years ago, further additions and correc- 
tions were collected in Appendix B (pp. 208-217). The cross ref- 
erences to Appendix B are marked by an asterisk * in the main 
part of the book. Even though the two editions of the Old 
Akkadian Writing and Grammar contain practically the same number 
of pages, the second edition is two-thirds larger in terms of 
contents than the first edition. This was accomplished by 
having the manuscript of the second edition typed on pages much 
larger than those of the first edition and then having them re- 
duced photomechanically to the present size. 

The dates quoted in this as in the former edition are those 
of T. Jacobsen, The Sumerian King List (AS XI) minus 276 years. 
The resulting dates correspond with the chronology proposed by 
Sidney Smith, yielding the dates 1792-17U9 B. C. for Hammurapi, 

For additional prefatory remarks, see pp. U6f. (preface to 
the Syllabary ) and pp # 218f. (preface to the Sign List of the 
Sargonic Period) . 



Under the term tt 01d Akkadian* we include the written remains of 
the Akkadian language from the oldest periods of Mesopotaraian his- 
tory down to the end of the 3rd Ltynasty of Ur. 

From the linguistic and epigraphic points of view Old Akkadian 
can be subdivided into three periods: 

1. The Pre-Sargonio Period, from the oldest times down to 

2. The Sargonic Period, including the period of the kings of 
the Akkad Dynasty* 

3. The Ur III Period, including the period from the end of the 
Akkad Dynasty to the end of the Ur III Qynasty. 


The Akkadian sources of the Pre-Sargonic Period are limited in 
size and number. We can distinguish: 

1. Primary sources, consisting of inscriptions written in the 
Akkadian language. 

2. Secondary sources, such as Akkadian proper names and loan 
words appearing in Sumerian inscriptions. 

The Pre-Sargonic inscriptions written in Akkadian are: 
1. One -inscription of Lugalzagesi, king of Uruk (about 2352- 
2327 B.C.), copied in the Old Babylonian Period. The in- 
scription was found at Nippur and was subsequently pub- 
lished in PBS V 3U x. Its first 5 lines are written with 
signs which can be read in either Sumerian or Akkadian; the 
rest of the inscription, reproducing the standard curse for- 
mula of the Old Akkadian Period, is written in Akkadian. 
Since Uruk lies outside of the Akkadian area, and since 

Lugalzagesi f s other inscription (published in BE I 87) is 
written in Sumerian, it is possible that the inscription 
published in PBS V 3i*, too, is to be read in Sumerian, and 
that the Akkadian curse formula was added when the original 
inscription was set up or copied in Nippur, Hallo, Early 
Mesopotamian Royal Titles p. 28, recently suggested that 
the inscription PBS V 3U is not a copy of an inscription of 
Lugalzagesi but that it was copied from a monument of Sargon 
on which figured a representation of the defeated king 

2. Four votive inscriptions from Mari, dated epigraphically to 
the period just before Sargon of Akkad. These are the in- 
scriptions of the kings Ikun?-Samas (CT V 2) and Lamgi-Mari 
(Thureau-Dangin, RA XXXI lUO) and of the officials Iddin- 
Narura and Apifc-Il (RA XXXI li*2f.). A distinguishing charac- 
teristic of all four inscriptions is the writing SAG.gfe.DU 
for tt he offered ex-voto n ; that of the two royal inscrip- 
tions is the spelling Du > L -su(d) /galamsu / for "his statue," 
Many more Pre-Sargonic inscriptions on statues were dis- 
covered recently at Mari. They are to be published soon by 
Dossin. Cf . provisionally Parrot in Syria XXX 196ff . and 
XXXI l£Lff . 

3» One short votive inscription each of Man-ki-bell (CT VII h) 
and Dada-ilum (UET I 11) of uncertain date, but definitely 
(It. According to Landsberger, OLZ XXXIV (1931) 123, "Vorhanden- 
sein reiner Ideogramme, d.h. sumerischer Worter ohne Pra- 
fixe,* SAG.QUB.DU, specifically, marks such inscriptions as 
being Akkadian. In this he is followed by Jacobsen, OIP 
LVIII 289ff. Since no Akkadian words or forms occur in 
these texts, they are of no value for the reconstruction of 
the Old Akkadian language* The inscriptions are: 

a. BE I 108 and 109, votive inscription of tf-bfl *>.]' ?, 
ensi of Kis?. Thureau-Dangin, SAKI p, 160 No. 1, 
reads U-tu[g] , but cf. tf-faub in CT V 3 iv t ITT I 
14.68:3, and Thureau-Dangin, REC No. 302, 

b. CT VII 3 EM 22i£2, private votive inscription. 


c. CT XXXII 8 BM 60036, private votive inscription, to 
be read from below* 

d. OIPLEII p. 1U7 No. 5.5 LVIII p. 291 Nos. k, 5, 6, 
10, 11, all votive inscriptions* 

e. Y&nckler, AOF I Sh$ No. 2, private votive inscrip- 

tion, mentioning Kis . 

f. Langdon, JHAS 1930 p. 602, private votive ins crip - 
tion, mentioning Kis . 

5, A small number of stone inscriptions dealing with property, 
especially fields, contain Akkadian words and proper names. 
I hope to discuss these ancient n kudurru , s H and their Su- 
merian and Akkadian parallels soon, in a separate stuoy 1 . 
The most important of these inscriptions are: 

a. GT V 3 * Winckler, A0£ I 5UU, from Sippar. Akka- 
dian: spelling §AM -su(d) , and personal names 
Su-Es» -dar , Su> -be-li , 1-ku-fm , Ib-ni -DINGIR, 
I-KA-lum f 

b. CT XXXII ?f. , from Dilbat. Akkadian: spelling 
SAM -su(d) 9 in GN, and personal names En-na-Il , 
A-lum-Dtto, Dub-si-ga, I-GAH-lum, Is-dup-Il , 
Pu\SA -su(d) -pQG, Il-x-su(d) , I-ku-La-im ?, Su, -jaa- 
Ma-lik , I-ku-Il -?GU (see f), Ra-bi-i-lum , Is-dup- 

c. OIP XIV 1*8, from Adab. Akkadian: spelling PN su 
PN, and personal names Da-tum , Pu-su-tum , Ma-sum , 
Ur-I-sum A jr-i-pum , and others. 

d. BIN II 2 - Nies, JAGS XXXVIII (1918) 190, reportedly 
from Uruk, but document may come from the area of 
Kis. Akkadian: personal names Ra-bi-i-lum and 
perhaps others, 

e. PSBA XX (1898) PI. If., from Sippar. Akkadian: 
spellings in GN, su ba-la-ag Da-da(-ri-im) "of the 
canal of D., H su PN, and personal names Be-li -BAIA, 
I-Ii , KA -Me-ir , Bil-zum , Be-li-GU, Ri-is- DINGIRj 
I-mu-tum , and others. 

f . Allotte de la Fuye, DP I 2, from Lagas? or Sippar? 
(cf. col. i x+2), Akkadian: spellings is-du-du 


"they measured" (or PN Is-du-du ?) , e-da-su "its 
side," in GN, SA.TI.UM "East," and personal names 
i-lum -Gfe, Pu^u- GI, I.GU.KU.DINGIR (see b) , 
I-bi-nJTU, PU\SA-be-l£, Su-mu - A-a, I-r&n-num , and 
g. Oriental Institute A 25^12* of unknown origin, Akka- 


dians personal names Is-dup-Il , En-na-II , 
I-lum -LA. 
h. Walters Art Gallery Ul»107, of unknown origin. Akka- 
dians personal names Iswne-i-lum , 1-gu-i-li . 
Secondary sources for the reconstruction of Akkadian in the 
Pre-Sargonic Period are contained in the Akkadian proper names ap- 
pearing in Sumerian sources* 

1. From Fara: Is-luI-II (Beimel, Fara III U8 i and 72 vi); 
Ad-da-lum (70 i); Ur- iS-Ium (35 vi) and ^-lum (II 5 v and 
rev. i; DIHGIR -mu-da (Jestin, OSS 150 i) . 

2. From Ur: j-lum-gur-ad (UST II PI. XLVTI 19 iff.); KA-l£-LUM 
(Nos. 77 and 203); and perhaps others. 

3. From Adabs La-ga-tum (OIP. XIV 51 ii); Ra-bi-Il (51 iv); 
Su-tu-x-lum (51 v); d-mu-x-li (51 vii)» 

li. From Lagas: A-da~gal , j-ii-pi-li , Ra-bi-ium , d-bi-DINGIR 
(De Genouillac, TSA, Index). 

5. From Nippur: Si-M-a-fri (Pohl, TMH V 19U ii); I-da-i-lum 
(31 ii); I-pi-i-lum (11 iv); I-ri-is (79 iii); i-ri-is' 
(passim); i-li -A3ARU (35 ii); I-Ium-ba-ni (10U rev. iii); 
j-lum-i-pi (170 i); Ib-Iul-Il (31 ii); Is-me-lum (9 rev. 
v; 11 rev. v); Pft.'.SAj- pi-li (3 i); La-gi-pum (6U rev. 
iii); Mu-ti-pi-oi (29 rev. vi); j-3J-a-fal (57; 79 ii); 
i-li-pi-li* (163 i); Ri-ba-tum (3U rev. v); Is-lul-Il (31 
^5 ft"*^*^- 3 -! (passim). Some of the names listed above 
may belong to the early Sargonic Period. 

6. From Kis: I-ti-dar-ru (Frankfort, CS PI. X i) . 

7. The Sumerian King List, for which cf. T. Jacobsen's work in 
AS XI, contains a number of Semitic royal names, chiefly 
from the northern cities Kis and Aksak, such as Ga-li-bu-um , 
Ga-lu-mu^um , Zu-ga-gi> -ip , Ar-wi-um , Ba-li-ib , Za-mug , 

Ti-ia-gar , and some others, 
8. Other Akkadian personal names can be found in scattered 

The other secondary sources consist of Akkadian loan words 
which begin to be attested in Sumerian from the Fara Period on. 
They appear in two forms: 

1. Without mimation or case endings: Mm, $A.ZI (later {JA.ZI. 
IN), NAGAR, etc. Here belongs the use of the signs A, GIS, 
P0, KAL, and SIKIL with the syllabic values id, iz, pu, 
dan, and el, derived from the Akkadian words idum , i§um , 
pum , dannum , and ellum , respectively. See also p. 141. 

2. Without mimation, but with the ending -a: BUR.SU.MA, 
DAM.gA.RA, etc. See also p. 141. 

In evaluating the scant sources for Akkadian in the Pre- 
Sargonic Period listed above, we can reach a few general conclusions: 

1. The Semites, specifically the Akkadians, appear from the 
earliest times side by side with the Sumerians. The Akka- 
dian elements predominate in the North, i.e. in Akkad; 
they are also well attested in the South, i.e. in Sumer, as 
e.g. at Fara and Nippur. 

2. In the field of writing we may observe frequent spellings 
of * * su ( d ) £° r /"js/ an(i > rarely, also -gu. In the Pre- 
Sargonic Period the use of SAG.&fe.DU for "he offered 
ex-voto w is preferred to A.MU.(NA.)RU, which is used regu- 
larly in later periods. Pohl f s assumption, in TMH V pp. 
7f., that the Pre-Sargonic texts can be distinguished from 
the Sargonic texts by observing the vertical wedge in the 
signs SU and DA, which is supposed to be drawn upwards in 
the former texts and downwards in the latter texts, needs 
modification. The vertical wedge in these two signs is 
drawn downwards throughout the whole Sargonic Period except 
during the time of Sargon (cf . TMH V 85 and 151 )» when it 
is drawn upwards as in the preceding Pre-Sargonic Period, 

5. In the field of language we can observe the regular use of 
case endings and mimation. Proper names and Akkadian loan 
words occurring without the mimation and case endings or 
without the mimation but with the case ending -a should be 


recognized as features reflecting older stages of the lan- 
guage in which the mimation and the case endings had not 
yet been developed, 
(1*. In the field of religion we may note the very common use of 
the element II in the Akkadian theophorous names, which seems 
to indicate that the god II (« later Semitic °S1 ) was the 
the chief divinity of the Mesopotamian Semites in the Pre- 
Sargonic Period.) 


The Sargonic Period is named after Sargon, the first and the 
most famous king of the Akkad Dynasty, This is the period from 
which we have by far the most numerous Old Akkadian sources. For 
that reason the Sargonic Period is frequently called H Old Akkadian" 
par excellence. 

The eleven kings of the Akkad Dynasty ruled altogether 181 
years, from about 231*0 to 2159 B.C. They were: 

Sargon, written Sar-ru -GI, 56 years, 23-1*0-2281*. 

Rimus, written R^-ma-us , son of Sargon, 9 years, 228U-2275. 

Man-istusu, written Ma-an-is-tu-su , son of Sargon, 15 years, 

Naram^Sin, written Na-ra-»am - jSN . ZU , son of Man-istusu, 37? 

years, 2260-2223. 
Sar-kali-sarri, written Sar-ga-li -LUGAL-ri , son of Naram-Sin, 

25 years, 2223-2198. 
Igigi, Nanijum, Imi, Elulu, written t-gi. -gi , 5 Ma-ni^am, I-mi , 

E-lu-lu , respectively, 3 years, 2198-2195. 
Dudu, written Du-du , 21 years, 2195-2171*. 

Su-Tarul, written Su-£ur-ul , son of Dudu, 15 years, 217l*-2l59. * 
The linguistic sources of the Sargonic Period can be subdivided 
as follows: 

1. Royal inscriptions, including historical, building, and vo- 
tive texts, and seals, of the kings of Akkad and their fam- 
ilies, written chiefly in Akkadian, rarely in Sumerian. 
Here belong also the inscriptions of the governors of Susa, 
such as Puzur-Insusinak and fipir-mupx (all in Akkadian), 

the seal of Surus-kin, ensi of l&nma (Thureau-Dangin, RA IX 
76), and the inscriptions of the kings of Gutium, including 
one Akkadian text each by Enridawazir or Erriduwazir 
(Hilprecht, BER VI 20f.) and La- 5 arab (Winckler, ZA IV U06) , 
and one Sumerian text each by Jar lagan (YOS I 13) and Si^um 
(Scheil, CRAI 1911 p. 319). Cf. also the inscriptions 
listed on p. 16 under d-f . 

2. Private and semi-private inscriptions, chiefly votive texts 
and seals, such as van Buren, Iraq I PI, IXb, Ward, 3OTA p. 
81 Fig, 217, and Parrot, Syria XXXII PI, XVI. 

3, Dates from the time of Sargon, all in Sumerian, and from 
the time of Naram-Sin and Sar-kali-sarrI, mostly in Akka- 
dian, a few in Sumerian. No dates are known from the time 
of Rimus and Man-istusu (i.e. between Sargon and NararaHSin) 
or from the dark period after Sar-kali-sarrl. 

h* Economic texts of administrative and legal character. These 
form the bulk of our sources for the Sargonic Period, Here 
belong the published texts from Lagas, Nippur, Adab, Susa, Ur, 
Gasur, and from the Diyala Region. The economic texts are 
written in Akkadian or Sumerian and, except for a few texts 
dated to Sargon, are all from the period of Naram-Sin and 

5, Royal, semi-private, and private letters, of which about 
thirty are written in Akkadian, e.g. HSS X U-12, JRAS 1932 
p. 296, MAD I 1U5, 191, FM $2£ . 

6, Religious texts, such as the Akkadian text published in MDP 
XIV 90, the Sumerian incantations published in MDP XIV 91 
and by Nougayrol in Symbolae Hrozry II PI, III opp, p. 226, 
and several texts from the Diyala Region. 

7, School texts, including exercises and lists, such as the 
ones published in HSS X 2l5ff., YOS I llf., copies of leg- 
ends, such as the important text, Tell Asmar 1931, 729, 
mentioned in Gelb, HS p. % n. % (now published in MAD I 
172), and other types in the texts from the Diyala Region, 

In reconstructing the language and the writing of the Sargonic 
Period, great care should be taken to separate sharply the original 
royal inscriptions, i.e., those written in the Sargonic Period, 

from later copies of these inscriptions. See on this subject Gelb 
in JKES VIII (19h9) 3U8^ In considering late copies several types 
should be differentiated: 

1, Reliable copies, such as those made by the Nippur school of 
scribes, e.g. PBS V 31* + PBS XV 1*1, which attempt to repro- 
duce faithfully the Sargonic dialect and system of writing. 

2. Unreliable copies, such as those made by the Ur school, e.g. 
U2T I 2?Uff., which are characterized by a number of forms 
and spellings reflecting Old Babylonian usage. 

3« Totally unreliable documents, such as the so-called "Cruci- 
form Monument of Man-istusu,* published in CT XXXII 14*, 
which, while imitating the writing and language of the Sar- 
gonic Period, contain numerous forms betraying late origin. 
The '•Cruciform Monument" turned out upon investigation (JNES 
VIII 3k6ff.) to be a document forged in the Old Babylonian 
Period for the purpose of securing revenue and special priv- 
ileges for the temple Ebabbar in Sippar, 
Assigning datable Sargonic sources to the individual kings, we 
obtain the following distribution: 

1. Sargon: one original inscription (RA XXI 6$ff t ), whose as- 
signment to Sargon is not beyond all doubt; several later 
copies of royal inscriptions, especially from Nippur; sev- 
eral economic texts with dates of Sargon. 

2, Rimus: several original inscriptions and later copies; no 
economic texts. 

3» Man-istusu: several original inscriptions and later copies; 
no economic texts, with the exception of the Man-istusu Obe- 
lisk (HDP II). 

U. Naram-Sin: several original inscriptions and later copies; 
many economic texts, 

5. Sar-kali-sarrJ: several originals, no late copies; many 
economic texts. 

6. Igigi, Nanijum, Imi: ho known sources. 

\C T 

7. Elulu: one inscription by Li-lu-ul-dan , king of A-ga-de , 
(AOF X 281), who may possibly be identified with Elulu (cf. 
Gelb, AJSL LIII 38); no economic texts. 

8. Dudu: two inscriptions; no economic texts. 

9. Su-Turul: three inscriptions; no economic texts. 
Subdividing Sargonic sources according to the areas in which 
the texts originated, we obtain the following distribution: 

1. AKKAD: 

a. From Kis: a royal inscription of Su~3harul; letters 
(Langdon and Watelin, EK III PI. XI Ho. 160; RA 
XXIV 96); economic texts, letters, and an incanta- 
tion soon to be published by P. van der Meer. 

b. From the area of Kis: the Man-istusu Obelisk found 
at Susa (MDP II). 

c. From Sippar: royal inscriptions of R^mus and Man- 
istusu; one economic document (BS I Pis. Vlff. ■ 
Gelb, Scritti in onore di Giuseppe Furlani pp. 83-9li; 
origin not sure). 

d. From Marad: a royal inscription of Naram-Sin. 

2. SUN03R: 

a. From Lagas: royal inscriptions of R£mus, Naram-Sin, 
and Sar-kali-sarrI; economic texts (RTC; ITT; RA 
IX 82; IAMN XII Pis. IVfJ; letters (ITT I). 

b. From Adab: royal inscriptions of Naram-Sin, Sar- 
kali-sarrl, and Dudu; economic texts (OIP XIV; 
Istanbul Museum; University of Chicago); letters 
(University of Chicago). 

c. From Nippur: royal inscriptions of Rimus, Man- 
istusu, Naram-Sin, Sar-kali-sarrI, and Dudu; eco- 
nomic texts (PBS IX; BE I 11; IAMN XII Pis. IVf.; 
THH V; TMH n.F. i/ll Pis. 95f«). 

d. From Ummatan inscription of Surus-kin, ensi of Umma 
(RA IX 76). 

e. From Ur: royal inscriptions of Sargon, Rimus, and 
Naram-Sin; economic texts (UED II Pi. XLVIII 29 etc.). 

f . From Drehem: a royal inscription of Naram-Sin. 

g. From Fara: economic texts (JAOS LIE 113 and 12k) • 


a. From Tell Asmar: a royal inscription of Su-Turul; 
economic texts, letters, and varia (MAD I). 

b. From Khafaje: royal inscriptions of Rimus and 
Sar-kali-sarrI; economic texts and varia (MAD I). 

c. From Tell Agrab: economic texts (MAD I) # 
cL From somewhere in the Diyala Region come the text 
published in UCP IX pp. 20i*f . No. 83 (which men- 
tions ensi of Isnun) and perhaps the two texts pub- 
lished ibid. p. 210 No. 89 and in AnOr VII 372 
(which mention several personal names of the Diyala 
2w SLAM: 

a. From Susa: royal inscriptions of Sargon, Man-is tusu, 
Naram-Sin, and of Elamite governors; economic texts 
(MDP XIV and scattered in MDF XVIII, XXIV, and 
XXVIII); letters and texts of varied contents (MDP 
XIV) . 


a. From Gasur: economic texts, letters, and school 
texts (HSS X). 

b. From Assur: a royal inscription of Man-istusu; 
economic and school texts (cf. provisionally Falken- 
stein, 2DMG XC 7lU n. 2; for other types, including 
a "steinerne Kaufurkunde,** cf. Forrer, RLA I 230b). 

c. From Chagar Bazar: economic texts (Iraq 3V 178 and 

d. From Tell Brak: royal inscriptions of Rimus and 
Naram-Sin; economic texts (Iraq VII i*2f*,60f., and 

e. From Diyarbekir: a royal inscription of Naram-Sin. 

f . From Nineveh: a royal inscription of Naram-Sin. 


a. From Mari: a royal inscription of a daughter of 
Naram-Sin, and votive inscriptions (Syria XXXII PI. 
Thus we find Sargonic sources, at least of the main period 
from Sargon to Sar-kali-sarrI, scattered throughout the whole terri- 
tory governed by the kings of Akkad. This territory includes the 
areas of Akkad and Sumer in Babylonia proper, and the surrounding 
areas of the Diyala Region, Elam, Assyria, and Mari. 

Up to now we have omitted from our consideration over 100 eco- 

nomic texts scattered in various publications (Fish, CST 2-17; 
Frank, SKT U3; Speleers, RIM U3, 80; BHM III 26, 101; Nikolski, 
Dok. II 1-86; RA VIII 158; Contenau, CHEU 53f.; BIN VIII passim), 
whose main characteristic is a date formula of the type xlx ITI 
x UD or x MU x ITI "x year, x month(, x day)," One letter so dated 
was published recently by Fish in MCS IV 13. The highest years noted 
by myself are 23 and 25, found on several unpublished tablets in 
the Louvre Museum (AO 11272; 11283; 11323; 11326; 11332). These 
tablets were dated by Thureau-Dangin, RA VIII l51i, "a une epoque 
certainement anterieure a la dynastie d'Agade," by Ungnad, RLA II 
132a, to "Zeit des Reiches von Akkad, 11 and by Kramer, AS VIII 20, 
"approximately from the time of Sarrukin," with no reasons being 
adduced. Jacobsen, AS XI 150, calls such tablets "Pre-Sargonic," 
but qualifies this ibid, n. 36 by saying that "it is not always 
easy to decide whether the tablets in question belong to the first 
half of the Agade period or to the time immediately before that per- 
iod." On the epigraphic basis alone I would be inclined to date the 
tablets in question to the time between the end of Sar-kali-sarrl 
and the beginning of the Ur III Dynasty, This period would coincide 
with late Sargonic, and since the late Sargonic Period, beginning 
with Sar-kali-sarrf, was recently equated by Jacobsen, in his Su- 
merian King List, with the Gutian Period, we may feel justified in 
assigning our tablets to this little-known Gutian Period. Note 
that the tablet published in Frank (noted above) has a reference to 
the Gutians, and that the Gutians do not appear in the Sargonic 
sources before the time of Sar-kali-sam. * 

The main secondary sources for the reconstruction of the Sar- 
gonic dialect consist of Akkadian proper names and loan words in 
Sumerian. The latter appear regularly with the nominative ending 
-urn: nisqum , mas alum and musjQum, jiarranum , majjaltum , and many 
others . 

It is not an easy thing to reconstruct the ethnic situation 
prevailing in the large area covered by the Sargonic texts, for our 
conclusions must be based almost exclusively on the use of language 
in written sources and on the linguistic affiliation of personal 
names. In treating written language as the basis for our consider- 
ations we must be careful to distinguish between the language of 

historical and religious sources, which might reflect an official, 
upper class language, and that of private letters and administra- 
tive documents, which are more likely to be written in a sub-standard 
form of language. The ethnic picture which can be reconstructed on 
the basis of our two main sources is fairly consistent in all of the 
six sub-areas into which the Sargonic territory can be subdivided. 

The Sumerian language is used regularly only in Sumer proper, 
but even there Akkadian letters and administrative documents occur 
frequently. The bilingual character of the Sumer area is indicated 
by the fact that in the unpublished correspondence of Kezi, the ensi 
of Adab, two letters are written in Akkadian (A 708; A 830) and 
two in Sumerian (A 868; A 9h2) , Outside of Sumer, i.e. in Akkad, 
the Diyala Region, Elam, Assyria, and Mari, only the Akkadian lan- 
guage is attested, the unique Sumerian written contract from Tell 
Asmar (MAD I 305) appearing so out of place as to lead to the con-* 
elusion that the contract may have been composed outside the Diyala 

The consideration of the use of personal names confirms the 
conclusion reached on the basis of the use of language. Sumerian 
personal names predominate only in Sumer proper. Certain areas, 
such as Nippur, have Sumerian names almost exclusively, while others, 
such as Lagas, contain a large number of Sumerian names, with Akka- 
dian names forming a fairly substantial percentage. Outside of Su- 
mer, disregarding non-Sumerian and non-Semitic elements in Elam and 
Assyria, the Akkadian names predominate thoroughly. This is fully 
true not only of Elam, the Diyala Region, and Assyria but also of 
Akkad, to judge, as a test case, from the relative percentages of 
Akkadian and Sumerian personal names on the Obelisk of Man-istusu 
(cf. the index in MDP II pp. Ul-l|°) . There, among hundreds of 
names, I could find only four which are definitely Sumerian, ex- 
cluding those composed of Ur - which could be borne by Sumerians as 
well as by Akkadians (cf . the names of the kings of the Itth Dynasty 
of Xis and 1st Dynasty of Isin) . The same picture results from the 
consideration of the use of month names. Sumerian names of months 
occur only in the Sumerian area, as at Adab, Lagas, and Nippur, 
while Akkadian names of months occur exclusively in the non-Akkadian 
a$ea and sporadically in the Sumerian area (cf. the list of Akka- 

dian month names in MAD I pp. 233f#). The striking conclusion of 
our investigation is that in the Sargonic Period the Suraerian ele- 
ment was limited to Sumer proper, and even there it had to contend 
with strong inroads of growing Akkadian influence. 

The following discussion is intended to give a short resume of 
the main characteristics of Sargonic writing, grammar, and vocabu- 
lary; they are treated more fully in the following chapters. 

From the aesthetic point of view, the Sargonic writing is prob- 
ably the most beautiful of all the known types of cuneiform writing. 
Regularity of form, attention to detail, and elegance of appearance 
are its main exterior characteristics. 

Numbers appear in round forms, but within the Sargonic Period 
the custom was slowly developing of writing numbers in the shape of 
wedges, as in later, standard, cuneiform. There are certain con- 
ventions governing the use of the two systems in conjunction with 
certain logograms, which require a more detailed investigation. 

The differences between voiced, voiceless, and emphatic con- 
sonants are not expressed in the writing. Consonantal and vocalic 
quantity is almost never indicated. There is a definite preference 
for syllabic spellings. Logographic spellings appear only with the 
noun. Real homophony of signs is very rare; apparent homophony of 
such signs as MA and MA (or AM and Xm) can be explained by taking 
MA as standing for ma, but MA as standing for ma a , ma* , or the like. 
The Plural is often expressed by reduplication, as in KUR.KUR. Cer- 
tain signs are used with s yllabic values characteristic mainly of 
the Sargonic Period: KA+SU for pu, pum; URU for vi; JR for xr; 
SU, for su ; MA for ma; DU for im ; GIS.Bfl for bil; & for *a; 
ID for a; & for e; LAM+KUR for is. Many signs are formally dif- 
ferentiated: MAS and BAR; KAB and SUB; GAN and KAR; gIR and SAR; 
ARAD(iR) and ARAD; KU, SE, and TUG; LU and DIB. In the case of 
the signs AS, TAB, I, and ES, the wedges can appear in an oblique, 
horizontal, or vertical form. 

In the field of phonology the following observations can be 
made: \ o is sti11 c l earl y distinguished from K _^. Semitic s, 
and Sp are coalesced into jiL ,>> but the. latter phoneme is still 
well -distinguished from s,.. The rare but rather consistent use of 
St, especially in the demonstrative pronoun, reflects perhaps a 

feature of Pre-Sargonic, in which this sibilant was an independent 
phoneme, S + s yields ss, as in iqis-sum , and not ss, as in the 
^ a ^ er i<l^s-sum . Vocalic contraction is unknown. 

In the field of morphology the Sargonic Period shows several 
distinctive features. The determinative -relative pronoun su, si, 
sa is clearly distinguished from the demonstrative-personal pronoun 
su , sua, sua (originally perhaps also a different sibilant). For 
the suffixal pronoun with the noun note: -i for later -ja, as in 
ana bel-I j in PI. -ni, as in Ajau-ni , but also -na, as in Abu-na , 

V ^ V V V V V 

Sadu-na ; - sunu , -suni 5 or -suna , as in A^u-sunu ^ Afou-surii * or 
Kaspu-suna ; -sina and -sin , as in Ajau-sina or al-sin . For the 
suffixal pronoun with the verb note the short forms in liruru-s , 
Liblut-ni ? as , and Ifrib-sinat , and the long form in aq£s-sunisim . 
The oblique case vowel i of -sunisim occurs also in Iisus,i ^as-suni 
(beside idki-sunu ) . The interrogative pronoun appears either as 
man , min or as ma-num , mi-num . 

The noun shows a declension with the normal three cases, Norn., 
Gen., Ace; an old Dat. in -is and an old Loc. in ^um appear in 
traces, mainly in personal names. Nouns without any endings or 
with the ending -a are found mainly in proper names, reflecting an 
older stage of the language than the Sargonic Period. The Dual is 
used regularly. For the Construct State note the form in sipri DN 
for the later in sipir DN. Some nouns are commonly attested in PI., 
as s£mu "price,* kaspu "money," beside kaspum "silver** 1 The 
mufeurra^m formation occurs more frequently than in later periods. 

The verb conjugation shows one unique peculiarity: the form 
illak-u (and perhaps others) for the 3rd pers. Fern. PI., instead of 
the expected illak-a . The Dual is used regularly. In Pi c el and 
Saf c el, as well as in verbs primae \* ^e ^ st P ers ** characterized 
by the prefix written u- or u~, is regularly distinguished from the 
3rd pers., characterized by the prefix written regularly u-» This 
may imply a difference between 1st pers. u-mab&ir , u-samfair , u-bil 
and 3rd pers. junniab^ir , ju-samfcLr , ju-bil . Fern, ta-mj^ur is reg- 
ularly distinguished from Masc. i-m^ur . The Relative ends fre- 
quently in -ni, as in Assyrian. The Precative has the forms li- 
mafabir , lu-mfaur , as in Babylonian, and not lu-raakbir , la-^bur , as 
in Assyrian. Note also the forms muj&ur j sumfaur (and parallel 

forms) , again in agreement with Babylonian, but not Assyrian, where 
we find rcafofeur , samfaur (and others). Verbs primae \ have the forms 
useriam beside usurlam . Note also the unique nisebilam , instead of 
the expected nusebilam . The form lu-sa-bf -la? ^kum in Sargonic is 
not certain, and du-ga-ba-lam /tusabalam / occurs in Ur III. Verbs 
mediae V, 7 are formed probably as iduak , duakum, d£k , iriab , 
riabum, rib in Qal, and as ukil in Pi c el # Note also eppis (beside 
Old Babylonian eppis or eppus ) and inaddan , iddin , idin , contrasting 
with Babylonian inaddin , iddin , i4in. and Assyrian iddan , iddin , 

In the field of vocabulary we find a number of words in the 
Sargonic Period which do not occur or occur very rarely in later 
periods. Note fruasum "^o give" (or the like), na^asum "to live," 
sa *arum "to vanquish," safrapum "to preserve (life), 11 and some 
others. Among prepositions, note the forms in "in" (but ana "to"), 
al "upon," iste "with,** and istum "from." Cf . also aj before vowels 
and e before consonants for the Prohibitive "may .... not ....," 
and enma "thus." 

Considering the large area and the span of close to two cent- 
uries in which the Sargonic inscriptions were used, we should not 
be surprised to find various areal and temporal peculiarities. 

In the field of writing we may note the use of PI for pi, b£ 
in the South (Nippur, Fara) and the frequent occurrence of DU in 
the Myala Region (as against TU elsewhere). 

In the field of grammar we note: the Subjunctive in -a in the 
Diyala Region; the spellings zu-si-ib 5 zu-da-rit-ib for susib , 
sutarib in a letter pertaining to the Gutians (JRAS 1932 p. 296), 
instead of the standard Sargonic susib , sutarib ) the spelling su- 
ut for s. 2 ut and su (in Su-Ma-ma and Su?Hmi-ig-ri ) for sL ~u in a 
legal document originating perhaps in Kazallu (BIN VIII 121), in- 
stead of the standard Sargonic s~ut and s-u. The spelling su-ut 
and su agree with sa and si in the Old Babylonian liver omina from 
Mari pertaining to the Sargonic Period (RA XXXV lilf.). 


In the period of the Sumerian renaissance, during the 3rd Dy- 
nasty of Ur (about 2117-2008 B.C.), the Sumerian written language 
ruled supreme in all Mesopotamia, while Akkadian was limited to a 
small number of sources, represented by the following classes: 

!♦ Royal inscriptions 

a. of Ur, by the kings Sulgi (CT III lj PBS V 1*1$ ZA 

III 9ht.} AS VI 22f.; OIP XLIII li£ Wo, 1); Bur- 
Sin, (by a governor of Assur, KAH II 2); Su-Sin 
(MDP II PI. 13, 6; IV PI. 1, 5 + PI. 18, 15 X PI, 
6, 1). 

b. of Mari, by the governors Puzur-Istar, Iddin-ilum, 
Ilum-isar, Is£up-ilum, Niwar-Mer, Apil-k£n, and pos- 
sibly others (AOF III 112 j RA XXXIII 178; XXXIV 
173; Syria XVII PI. VII opp. p. 2U; XXI 153-163; 
Parrot, Mari Fig. 130). * 

c. of Lullubum, by the kings Annubanini (Morgan, MSP 

IV 161) and ...,-birini (ibid. p. 158). 

d. of Kar&ar, by the king Tis-atal (De Clercq I 121). 
Possibly late Sargonic. 

e. of Urkis and Nawar, by the king Art-sen (RA IX PI. 
I opp. p. 1). Possibly late Sargonic. 

(f. Of. also the Hurrian written inscription of Tis^atal 
endan of Urkes, published in RA XLII 1-20. Possibly 
late Sargonic. Cf. the discussion by Gelb in Studi 
orien talis tici in onore di Giorgio Levi Delia Vida 
pp. 380f.) 

(g. The inscriptions of the rulers of Der (Ilum-muttabbil: 
CT XXI lc; Speleers, RIAA h * Jacobsen, AJSL XLIV 
26lff.; Ward, CPM No, 68; Nidnusa: YOS IX 62; X: 
OIP XLIII 155 No. 55$ MDP IV PI. 1, 3), of Klam 
(Idadu-Insusinak: MDP VI PI. 5; Idadu: MDP II p. 
73), and of Ssnunna (Su-ilija, Nur-a&um, Kirikiri: 
all in OIP XIJII 135, lU3ff . , cf. also p. 196) may 
belong to the period between the last years of Ur 

III and the beginning of OB.) 
2. A few private votive inscriptions, such as those of Bell- 
re 'um (YOS I 18), Dumuqsu (YOS IX 17) , and Uruna (RA XXI? 
' 3. A small number of economic texts (RA XIII 133; XXXII 190; 
RT XIX 57; TMH n.F. i/ll 7; Oppenheim, CCTE TT 1; Boson, 
TCS 371; JCS X 29 No. 8; ITT IV p. 12, 7125; Legrain, 
TRU 378; Ml n.F. i/ll 171; two unpublished texts belong- 
ing to the late Mr. Milton Yondorf of Chicago; MDP X 125?, 
126?; XVIII 219; XXII Ihh} XXVIII U2U; (and perhaps 
other texts from Susa, Diyala [unpublished] , as well as the 
texts from Mari recently published by Jestin in RA XLVI 
[1952] 185-202, all dated to the period between the last 
years of Ur III and the beginning of OB. Of. the discus- 
sion by Gelb in RA L [1956] 1-10). 
iu One published letter (RA XXIV kh) plus three letters soon 
to be published by Sollberger (NBC 5378; HTS 102; Kelsey 
Museum of Archaeology 3W+) • 
As in the previous two periods, we can list Akkadian loan words 
in Sumerian and Akkadian proper names mentioned in Sumerian sources 
among the secondary sources for the Akkadian language in the Ur III 

The very large number of Akkadian words used in the Sumerian 
of the Ur III Period indicate a growing influence of Akkadian, 
These loan words have been collected systematically in my MAD III. 
The outstanding characteristic of Akkadian loan words of the Ur III 
Period is the ending -urn: maslijum , nasparum , sapalum , wadaltum , 
and many others. 

The other class of secondary sources for Akkadian in the Ur 
III Period, rather impressive in quantity, consists of the many 
proper names, especially personal and geographical names, found 
scattered in the Sumerian texts. 

Among the small number of school exercises which we find in 
the Ur III Period, there are some containing Akkadian materials, 
such as the lists of names in PBS XI /3 Nos. 51-57 and the so-called 
"vocabulaire pratique" in RA XVHI U9ff . (with duplicates in MDP 
XXVII) containing many Akkadian expressions. 


Among the hundreds of thousands of Ur III documents, the few 
texts written in Akkadian in the Ur III Period are conspicuous for 
their rarity. We note the exclusive use of Akkadian in the few of- 
ficial sources in Assur, Mari, Lullubum, Urkis and Nawar, and pos- 
sibly Der, Elam, and Esnunna, all outside of Sumer proper. The 
very large number of Akkadian personal names found in the Sumerian 
sources, even in such areas as Sumer, in which formerly the Sumerian 
names dominated fully, the fact that the later kings of Ur III bear 
Akkadian, not Sumerian names, and that the names of persons com- 
pounded with a royal (deified) name, such as Su-Sin-ili, are in the 
great majority Akkadian (cf. Schneider's list in AOr XVII 3/k pp. 
351-358), and the many Akkadian loan words jji Sumerian do not speak 
in favor of the assumption that the steady progress of the Akka- 
dians received a setback in the Ur III Period. I am inclined rather 
to believe that the Sumerian renaissance affected only the written 
language, while the country in general continued in the direction of 
total Semi tizat ion and elimination of Sumerian elements. 

The linguistic materials are not adequate to enable us to give 
a short sketch of the Ur III Akkadian comparable to that given a- 
bove of the Sargonic; nevertheless a few points of general interest 
can be noted. 

In the field of writing, new syllabic values begin to be used, 
such as KA for ka, Si for sa, TA for ta, and DI for di. Numbers 
appear regularly in wedge form, as in later Akkadian, but the old 
style of writing numbers in the form of circles and half -circles is 
attested occasionally in the Ur III Period, as in Barton, HLC Pis. 
3 and 52. 

The phoneme 1-*? is still distinct from 2-. 2 > buti it influences 
a > e change to a larger degree than in the Sargonic Period, Mote 
e.g. isme\ in place of the Sargonic isma\ (but even here occasion- 
ally also isme \ ) and neYberum in contrast to the Sargonic 
na^rabtum . In place of the Sargonic phonemes s., ? and £- only one 
£ phoneme is used. 

For the morphology note the replacement of the determinative- 
relative pronoun su, si, sa by sa, as in later periods. In place 
of Sargonic Su-ili H he of my god," we have now Su-ilija . 

In the field of vocabulary the following clear changes can be 

observed: ina H in, n as against Sargonic in, umma n thus, H as against 
Sargonic enma , and itti "with," as against Sargonic iste» 


Old Akkadian writing is of Sumerian origin. This statement is 
made without prejudice as to who were the original creators of the 
so-called Sumerian writing, the Sumerians or an as yet undef inable 
ethnic element which may have been native to Mesopotamia before the 
coming of the Sumerians. 

Being of Sumerian origin, Old Akkadian writing contains all 
the main elements which are characteristic of the Sumerian writ- 
ing: logograms or word signs, syllabograms or syllabic signs, and 
auxiliary signs. 


Only those Sumerian logograms are used in Old Akkadian which 
represent nouns, i.e. substantives, numerals, adjectives, and par- 
ticiples, as in LUGAL * sarrum , DINGIR-SIG^ - Ilum-damiq , DfM « 
ban? , DI.TAR * dSnum and dajjanum , FA.TE.SI * issi ^akkum , NAM.RA. 
AG - sallatum . Therefore in Ba-sa-^r KUR, the logogram KUR cannot 
stand for the verb iksudu , as tentatively suggested by Thureau- 
Dangin (SAKI p. 225), but for a noun sadwum . Similarly, in 
IAM+KUH-ar the sign LAM+KUR, cannot be a logogram for the Adcadian verb 
sacrum , as generally taken (cf. Ungnad, MS pp* 8lif.)$ as shown 
~ n ^ he Sy3- lapar y No. 2^a, LAM+KUR represents a syllabic value is 
or es . Cf . also the discussion on Sumerograms on pp. 21f. 

Sumerian logograms forming part of compound personal names may 
express at times more than when used separately, as in 3e-lx -B&) ■ 
Be-li-tu-ri /Bell-durl /^ Sar-ru -BAD « Sar-ru-tu-ri , Urn-mi -D?)G » Ufa- 
mi-da-bat /Ummi-tabat/ . Cf . also DINGIR ra-bi-u-tum /ilu rab^jutum/ 
and similar constructions in the PI. (p. 23). 

Over-abundant Sumerian logograms for Akkadian words occur in 
the following spellings: TI.IA for balatum in DINGIR-TI.LA and |u- 
TI.LA; AN.NA for ilum in. A-bi -AN.HA and Im-ti -AN.NA (Ur III); 

DINGIR.RA for ilum in A-bu-Him ~£INGIR.RA (Ur III) \ KALAM.MA for 
matum in KALAM.MA -zu, as compared with KALAM -zu. 

Sumerian compound spellings pronounced in Akkadian can be 
found in; Su-AD.MU for Su-abi (Sargonic and Ur III), Sul~gi -AD.MU 
for Sulgi-ab? (Ur III), LUGAL.HU-ra-M for Sarri-rab£ (Ur III), and 
En-DINGIR.MU (Hallo, HUGA XXIX pp. 78f.) for £n^ni-li (Sarg.). 
Beside the above cases in which MU functions as 1 in Akkadian, 
there are cases in which MU functions as -ja, as in La-la -MU com- 
pared with La-la-a (TMH n.F. i/ll 1, Ur III tablet and seal), La- 
if-MU (SO IX/l No. 17, Ur III) compared with La-li-g (Ho. 11), and 
i-ii -MJ compared with I-Ii-a (both in. TMH n.F. i/ll, Ur III). 

Sumerian spellings, such as A.SA.BI "its area" (HSS X 16), SiL 
3A "in it" (HSS X 38 iii), K.AG "he weighed out" (HSS X k2 rev.), 
i.TAR "he judged" (HSS X 211 rev.), occur frequently in Akkadian 
context, but it is doubtful whether they should be taken as logo- 
grams which are to be read in Akkadian. Certainly it is hard to 
imagine that the logograms in such spellings as SE.NUMUN-su (HSS X 
16), AS.NUMJN-su (HSS X 36 iv) , KUS.GUD -su-nu (MDP XIV 86), KUS. 
MAS-su-nu (ibid.) could be read in any way other than in Sumerian, 

Different from the standard Old Akkadian system is the use of 
the following Sumerograms for verbs: SAG.RIG ? (« SAG.JJUB.DU or the 
like) for isruk "he offered ex-voto" (p. 5, also for sarrakum %n 
the equation URU.SAG.RIG~ « Al-sarraki ) from the Pre-Sargonic Pe- 
riod on; A.MU.RU for isruk in Sargonic votive inscriptions and 
later; SAG.OIS.RA for en^ar "he smote" (S. ii, corresponding to 
Sumerian e-faul in the inscriptions of Sargon), i.GUL.GUL "he de- 
stroyed" (* Sumerian e-ga-si (m) and x-gul-gul ) , SU.DUg.A "he took 
(captive)" ( a Sumerian e-ga-dib ), i.LUg "he washed" (« Sumerian 
l-lu^ ), NINDA KU "they eat bread" (= Sumerian ninda i-ku-e ; cf. 
also the Sumerogram NINDA KU in the Sargonic real estate document 
in JCS X 26 I.E., but NINDA I.KU passim in MO). The use of Suraero- 
grams to express verbs, contrary to the standard procedure, as well 
as the fact that the Sumerograms occurring in Akkadian are different 
from the corresponding logograms in Sumerian may reflect the exist- 
ence of two different systems of cuneiform writing.* Parallel con- 
clusions may be drawn from the inscriptions of Rimus (R. xxvii), 
where the Sumerograms DuX KUG.AN, IGI.MK, and MU of the Akkadian 


inscription correspond to alan annaa , igi , and me-te , respectively, 
of the Sumerian inscription. The spelling e GIN (the reading GIN, 
instead of GUB, is in accordance with a suggestion by a student of 
mine, Stanley Gevirtz) for ejittallak , instead of the expected 
ajittallak , is found in the late copies of the Sargonic royal in- 
scriptions and may reflect Old Babylonian usage. 

logograms can occur with phonetic indicators, usually called 
"phonetic complements, 11 or with semantic indicators, usually called 
"determinatives . " 

Logograms can occur alone, as in LUGAL, DIMU, DUMU.SAL, DUB, 
MU, or with partial phonetic indicators, as in KUG # BABBAR-am 
Aasgam/, LUGAL-um /sarrum/ , LUGAL-ri /sarri/ , GAN-lam /eqlam /, 
GIS.TUKUL -ga-su /kakkasu /t AB+^S -bu-tum /sibutum/ . Of the two types 
of phonetic indicators, one giving only the ending (as in LUGAL-um), 
the other repeating fully the last syllable (as in LUGAL-r£), the 
second is by far the more common. 

The number of determinatives is rather limited in Old Akkadian. 
The determinatives are: DINGIR, GIS, p, p, fD, ITI, KI, KUS, LU, 
NA» , SAR, SIM, Tlfc, and #. The determinatives which were certainly 
unpronounced are placed above the line in transliteration. Some 
determinatives, such as GIS, which could either be pronounced or 
not, are normally transliterated on the line. 

The half -circle, really number 1, is used frequently, but not 
regularly, in front of personal names, both masculine and feminine, 
representing main entries; this determinative does not, however, 
occur in front of personal names representing paternity or other 
relationship. The number 1 is often used in the date-lists (cf . 
RLA II 133) in the combination in I MU /in sanat / without ar^ cor- 
respondence in Akkadian. 

The determinative KI occurs not only with geographical names 

but also with common nouns denoting location, such as URU "city," 

in late copies also KALAIVp "country," KASKAL KI "road." We may 

find this determinative even with syllabic spellings, as in ma-at 

# KI 
gu-ur-tim ♦ The determinative KI is often written not at the end 

of the geographical name but just before the case ending: Is- 

nun^-im (MAD I), Ug°-im (MAD. I), Lu-lu-bi K I -im (Morgan, MSP IV 

161 i 3, Lullubum). 


The use of determinatives is not mandatory* Thus while the 
divine determinative is regularly used in the case of 1SN.ZU, in- 
ifl , aM> ^isaba , Tispak , ^TU, it never occurs with SSi -dar , 
^ -a > ^•" n ^ n > Ma-*na , and it is optional with ^ Da-gan , ^ 'ID, and 

Ma-lik. Generally speaking, the divine determinative occurs 
with logograms but is omitted with words spelled syllabically. 

Nouns in PI., when not written syllabically, can be expressed 
logographically in the following way: 

1. by occurrence with a numeral, as in k GUD "li oxen," UO GIS. 
KA * arba^a sinnat "I±0 r teeth* (of a threshing board) ," MU. 
2.KAM "2 years (old)." 

2. by reduplication: DUMU.DTMU "sons," GURUS. GUROS "workers," 
B^D.B^D "walls," URU KI .URU KI "cities," GU.GU OAL.GAL "large 
beans," GU.GU TUR.TUR "small beans," x AB+AS.AB+AS »x wit- 

3m by addition of ME (used only with persons): GURUS. ME 
"workers," M^.IAft .ME "sailors," GME.3® "slave girls," 
DIMJ*ARAD.MB "boys," LU.A+p.ME "run-away (workers)." The 
original meaning of this construction is "they are workers," 
" they are sailors , " etc . 

h* by addition of p.A to denote various kinds (of animals and 
objects): x (including various kinds of sheep and 
goats), x (including cows and oxen), x GIS.&I.A 
(including various kinds of trees or wood). 

Abbreviations of logograms occur in SAG for SAG.KI and MR for 
KAR.TU (HSS X 13; 16; etc.); MA for MA.NA (ITT V 6671); NI for 
SI.NUN (CT V 2$ff., Ur III); GA for GA.JJAR (ibid.). 


Almost all the Old Akkadian syllabic signs are derived from 
the Sumerian system. Thus the Akkadian syllabogram da corresponds 
to the Sumerian syllabogram da, the latter being derived from the 
logogram DA "side." Similarly, the Akkadian syllabogram bala cor- 
responds to Sumerian bala from the logogram 3A1A "turn," "rule." 

Although in a great majority of cases the signs of the Sume- 
rian and Akkadian syllabaries correspond closely to each other 

(i.e. the Akkadian syllabic values are normally those also used syl- 
labic ally by the Sumerians), there are s ome syllabic signs which are 
used only in Sumerian (such as ib, ka, kei ), while other values, 
derived directly from Sumerian logograms, occur in Akkadian without 
any attested intermediary of Sumerian ay llabo grams (such as LAM+KUR 

- is , DU - im ). 
— x* — x 

Some syllabic values are apparently derived not from the Sume- 
rian logograms but from the Akkadian words which stand for the Su- 
merian logograms, such as id from A - idum ; jz from GIS * ijum ; el 
from SIKIL * ellum ; dan from KALAG = dannum; pu , pit from KA * Nom. 
pum, Gen. pirn ; pu , ba~- from KA+§U or KA+KAR$ sar from LUGAL - 
sarrum ♦ 

The Akkadian syllabary, like the corresponding Sumerian sylla- 
bary, is not complete, i.e., it does not contain signs for each and 
every syllable which may occur in the language. Thus while there 
are two separate signs MI and ME, only one sign LI exists but IE is 
lacking. Similarly, there are no separate signs for K£, EG, EZ, 
and for many syllables of the consonant + vowel + consonant type, 
such as -PL, BAZ, ZU3, etc. 

Syllables for which special signs are lacking are expressed by 
signs expressing similar sounds (such as le expressed by li) or by 
a combination of two signs (such as foil expressed by foi-il ) . 

1, Writing of Vowels, n Weak n Consonants 5 
and the Like 

The writing of vowels is one of the most perplexing problems 
of Old Akkadian and easily lends itself to all sorts of possible 
interpretations. Here are the so-called n vowel M signs with typical 

A « a a-hi, a-ti, a-la-kam, a-li-dam, is -a-ru, DUMU-a (- 

mar D a, Du. Constr, St.) 
£ - *a ^a-ru-us, da-la~*a-mu, La-^a-ra-ab (and La-a-ra-ab), 

A = D a La-a-ra-ab (and La-^a-ra-ab), a-^a-zum, A-a-pum, ra-a- 

pum (and ra-foa-bu-um, Ur III), a-tum mi-nim 
5 = e e-ru-ub (and e-ru-ub, 3rd pers.), e-bx-is (1st pers.), 

ir-e-, La-e-pum, u-wa-e-ru~us, in ga-mi-e 
£ - V e-la-kam (and i-la-ak) , e-ru-ub (and e-ru-<th) , 3S-ni^um 
(~ I-ni-um, both in FM), e-ga-bi, e-ri-sa~am, e-ri-su!- 
ga, e-ra-a-am-su 
I - i i-na-da-an, I-sa-ru-um, i-la-ak (and e-la-kam), i-bu-us 
I = 3 i f-li-, I-la-ag-, in sum-lu-I-su, Ri-i-turn, Ir-i-pum, 

J3a-gan-r£-i -su 
U * u ba,--u-la-ti, U-zu-mr- (and u-zu-ur, Impv.), U-da-tum, 

U-za-zum, u-ma (and u-ma, 1st pers.) 
t =* 5 u u-ma (and u-ma, 1st pers.), u-zu-ur (and U-zu-ur-, 

Impv # ), u-^wa-e-ru-us (1st? pers.), u-^u-ru-tum, ik-mi-u, 
li-ru^u-nim, it-ru~u, ra-bi-u-turn, Gu-ti-u, ru-u-ba-um, 
Su-ba-ri-iu, ku-lu-u 
U - ju u-na-ki-is, u-ba-al, u-sa-ab, u-sa-za-ku, u-sa-ri— ib, 
U-su-si-ir- (all 3rd pers, ), U-ba-ru-um, Ip-te-u-^um 
(and Ip-ti~um), in u-*ni-su« 
The conclusions as to the exact function of the vowel signs 
were reached on the basis of examples quoted above and many more 
listed in the Syllabary , It is clear from the spellings which in- 
terchange with each other that the system as here reconstructed was 
not applied rigorously. 

In my reconstruction of the system there are two rows of 
"vowel" signs: one, consisting of A, E, I, U, stands for a vowel 
preceded by an onset, not indicated in the transliteration; the 
other, consisting of l 9 E, i, "0, stands for a vowel preceded by a 
stronger onset, indicated in my transliteration of these signs as 
3 a , °e , ? i , \i , each with an aleph. An even stronger onset is 
expressed in the sign B, here identified with Semitic Ija on the 
basis of numerous examples; cf » Syllabary No. 17U, especially the 
spelling ^a-ru-us for the Impv, (fr)arus and the spelling a-ru-us 
for the Pret. ^(hjrus in the letter pertaining to the Gutians (JHAS 
1932 p. 296) • That the quality or quantity of the initial onset in 
the Sumerian sounds was not identical with that of the Akkadian 
sounds, can be taken for granted. Some hints as to their character 
may be obtained from the. observation of the following: the Sume- 
rian word for "great house," "palace," written E,GAL, Old Akkadian 
^akalium, appears as hajk e la in Syriac and other Aramaic dialects 

and as hekal in Hebrew; note also the variant form written GA for 
E "house* 1 in Sumerian. The Sumerian word for "river, ** written &, 
appears in the name of the Euphratean city called Hit in Arabic and 
in the first part of ffiddeqel , the Hebrew name of the Tigris. Since 
the U sign almost never exchanges with the U and $ signs , its qual- 
ity must be quite different from the simple u or ^u. Of the two 
possibilities, namely o or ju, the latter is preferred because of 
the regular occurence of this sign %n the 3rd pers., but not in the 
1st pers.; cf» examples on pp 9 l64ff« The best confirmation of 
the above proposal comes from the spelling of two words, li-ip-te- 
u-ma and li-fse .,^ T-gi-u-nim-ma in an unpublished Sargonic text in 
Copenhagen No. 10055 rev., recently made available to me. The in- 
terpretation liptejuma , in contrast to lisesi°unimma , also supports 
the conclusion made below p. 186 that the verbs mediae 3 - frequently 
behave like verbs mediae \* However, there are two difficulties 
which should not be overlooked. In taking U as having the value ju 
in Sargonic, we would have to assume that that value was developed 
secondarily in Sargonic, since Sumerian does not have a phoneme j_. 
The occurrence of A-dam-u , beside ^A-da-mu , A-da-mu (all three 
listed in 'MAD III 19), and of Dar-u-ma (FM p. 230), beside Da-ru-ma 
(Cop. 10059), leads to the conclusion that at least in some areas 
or periods of Sargonic the sign U did not have the value ju . 

Although it cannot be proved definitely, due to lack of suffi- 
cient examples, some such difference in the indication of an initial 
onset as has been proposed above may also have existed in the case 
of the signs AH and AM; IM and IM ; AB and AB; ID and fcj IE 
and IR; OR, tfe, and UR, ; IL, fL, and iL; ES, £s, and ES . Cf . 
na-ra-am / naram /» KUG.BABBAR-am /kaspam /, but li-si-rf-am 
/liseri^am/ (beside li-se^-ri-am ) and am~&ur /^amfcur /j im-^ur , 
but also im (D0) -bu-r[u]- , im -faur , Im -da-lik , im -tu-ud ; ga-si- 
id- /kasid /, but Ri-ga-xd and Ki-ku-id ; i-si-ir /£sir /, but ir-ku- 
zu, Ir-am- (we expect jr^am- ) ; and other cases (cf. Syllabary ) not 
so clear. 

In addition to the type of initial onset expressed in translit- 
eration by an alenh, Semitic languages also have a final release, 
frequently expressed in their writings by aleph, he, or others of 
the so-called weak consonants. That Akkadian also had this final 

release can be reconstructed in the Sargonic Period from the exist- 
ence of such pairs of signs as BI and BI, MA. and M*C, LI and l£ 9 RI 
and Rf , LIT and Lu\ Cf ♦ E-bi-ir-JUlum /£pir-ilum/ , bi-ra-fau 
/birabu/ , Xi-se ^. -bi-Iam /lisebilam / (also li-^se. . .j -bjC-lam ) 5 but bf- 
turn /bJtum/, ra-bi /rabi /, i-bi /ibbfe/ ; ma-%i-ru /ma^irq/ , i-ma- 
fra-ru /imaQfoaru /, but is -ma /isma c / (beside very rare is -ma ) , u^ja 
/umaV , it -ma /itmaV (beside rare it-ma ) , Da-as-ma-tum /Tasma c tum/ , 
Ma-gan K I ; li-li-ik /lillik/ , U-li-id- /ttlid-A but regularly j-lf 
/ill / (beside rare j-li ) , be -if /bela/ f a-li-dam /all tarn/ ; and 
many other cases not so clear. The large number of inconsistencies 
in the use of the two rows of signs should not obscure the principle 
that by and large the first row of signs, generally those translit- 
erated without diacritic marks, such as BI, MA, II, are used for 
simple short vowels, as in B-bi-ir- /§pir- /j while the corresponding 
second row of signs, generally transliterated with diacritic marks, 
such as BI, HA, LI, are used for either long vowels, as in f-li 
/Hi /, or vowels resulting from the contraction of a short vowel 
plus a weak consonant, as in bi-tum /bit urn/ , or vowels followed by 
one of the laryngeals or pharyngeals, as in is-ma /isma c /« The 
signs expressing final release could, if necessary, be interpreted 
as bl, ma, etc,, or bi^, ma* , etc., or the like; I prefer, however, 
a neutral bo/, ma* , etc., to adjust the Akkadian with the Sumerian 
practice* At the present state of our knowledge of Sumerian, it is 
impossible to establish what the signs of the second row stand for 
in Sumerian. They could stand for syllables with a lost final con- 
sonant, as in ma from ma 3 or man , or they could indicate some vari- 
ations of tone, of. the type found in Chinese. Poebel in AS II and 
Kramer in AS VIII have reconstructed two parallel groups of vowels 
for the Pre-Sargonic Sumerian: the open vowels a, e, o, and the 
corresponding close vowels e, i, u. Some of their contrasting 
values in Sumerian (such as BI and BI, GI and GI, ) agree well with 
my values in Akkadian, but I must admit that, try as I might, I have 
not been able to utilize their general reconstruction for the Old 
Akkadian language and writing. 

The writing of the semi -vowels £ and w (phonetically i and u) 
in Akkadian is governed by the exigencies of the Sumerian system of 
writing. Since these two phonemes do not exist in Sumerian, the 

Sumerian writing system does not have any special signs to express 
them* The Akkadians were forced, by the presence of these two 
phonemes in their language, to find ways of expressing them in 

For the phoneme j no special signs were used during the Sar- 
gonic Period. Initial ja did not exist in the language. Initial 
ji is expressed perhaps in the spellings i-ik~mi- /jikmt- /, I-is-e- 
/Jis J e« /; generally, however, we should assume that ji changed to 
i. Initial ju may be preserved in u-ub-lam /jublam /, urur-da-ni 
/jurdanni /, unmi-su /jumisu/ . Cf . p. 26. Medial ^ is never ex- 
pressed in writing: a-ar /ajar /, a e-ru-ub /ajerub /, ma-a-ai~tum 
(in Sargonic, but ma-al-tum in Ur in)'. Final j is found perhaps 
in the month name Sa-ni-i /Sanij / and in in ga-mi-e /in kamij/ . 

In the Ur III Period the custom developed of using NI or NI+A 
for ja (only in foreign names), as in Ia-ab-ra-at or Ia-a-da~az . 
For ju the spelling NI+U is to be noted in Iu -u-sa-na-ag and Iu - 
u*sa , although the simpler reading Ia-u-sa-na-«ag and Ia-u-sa might 
also be considered. For these and other examples in the Cruciform 
Monument and late inscriptions, cf . Syllabary No. lU6 under the 
sign NI. The sign combination IA, i.e. I+A, is not attested before 
the Old Babylonian Period. 

For the phoneme w the Akkadians regularly used the Sumerian 
sign PI in the function of wi, wa, wu. Cf . La-wi-ib-tum ^ %ra-nar-ki- 
um , wu-*zu-is . But the initial w is sometimes expressed by u+a or 
u+a, as in the Sargonic U-as-ti-a A^£WJa/ an<* Ur III U-ar-ti-a 
/ Wardija /. The spellings fi-a-se-ir-Da-ga-an (ITT V 6718) and U-ar- 
ra-su-ni (Nikolski, Dok. II 36U) are not understandable. 

2. Writing of Stops and Sibilants 

A chart for the use of signs for syllables containing an ini- 
tial stop or sibilant and ending in a vowel can be reconstructed as 
follows for the Sargonic Period: 
a. Labials: 

BA = ba, pa ba-ni /bant/ and /panl/, ba-la-ag /palag/ 
(PA only in A-pa-al KI , ITT I 1099) 

(BAj only in A-ba. , ^a-ba, -ba. ) 


(BA C 


BE » be, bi. , pi 

BI « bi, pf 
Bf - bf , pi^ 

(PI « bi, pi, be. 


BU » bu, pu 
PO » pu, bu 

b. Dentals: 

DA * da, ta, £ a 
D& « de, tei , *fce 

TE » #de, , te, *^ei 

TI - di, ti, ii 
DU - du, tu, £u 

TU » du, tu, fcu 

(DU P 

c* Velars: 

GA « ga, ka, qa 

GI - #gi, ki\ q£ 

only in ba.. . -u-la-ti) 
only in ba^-lu-^u-um, ba_-lu-^um, 
Ba 5 -ti) 

be-li, Za-be-DINGlR, It-be-um, Sa-afc-be- 

DINGIR (SIP). Use of BE very rare 

li-se---bi-lam, is-bi-gi (and is-bx-ku) 

-ra-b£*, e-bi-is, -*riu-bx (*{P*7^> is-bx-ku 

(and is-bi-gi) 

only in South Babylonian usage, as in 

i-ga-pi-u (late copies), Sa-afc-pi-DINGIR, 

i-lf-pi-lf /ll£-bell/) 

only in A-pi» -sal and perhaps tf-pii - 


A-bu-, i-bu-us /xpus/ 

Pu-us-ru-sa, Pu-su-GI, A-pu-DINGIE (and 

A-bu-), Li-pu-ru-um (and -li-bu-ur 


i-na-da-an, ad-da, Da-pum /jabum/ 

only in Ta-ta, MAD I) 

A-ga-de-um (and A-ga-ti-um, both in HSS 

X), is-de 

ip-te-u (and Ip-ti-um) , te-ir-rx-is 

only in I-de-de, HSS X 20£) 

a-ti /adx/, Ip-ti-um, Ip-ti-ru-^um 

is-du-tu, Du-gul-tum (and Tu-gul-tim), 

li-ip-du-4ir. Use of DU much less common 

than that of TU 

is-du-tu, Tu-gul-tim (and Du-gul-tum), 

Tu-li-id-, li-is-tu-ru-nim 

only in ir-bi-duo-um, MAD I, and Gu\DU«# 

A KI ) 

Ga-mi-ru-^um, -ga-si-id /kasld/, Ga-ga- 


ib-ba-al-gi-it-ma, u-gi-il, is-gi-ni 

(and is-ki-nu-), il-gi-ma 


^V k V qi u 

KI - gi^, ki, qf 


gu^, ku, qu 

GU - gu, kUg, qu 


d. Sibilants : 

ZA « za, sa, §a 


ze» #se 

ZI ■ zi, si, s£ 

i, su, §u 

wa-ar-git -urn ( and wa-ar-ki-*im) , u-sa-am- 
gi^-it (copy), mi-gi^-tim (copy) 
Ma-an-ki-im-lu-*ts (GML, doubtful) , wa-ar- 
ki-*im (and wa-ar-gi, -um), is-ki-nu- (and 
is-gi-ni), i-ki-is 

ru-ku-^ia^um, is-ku-nu (and is-gu-un), 
i-li-ku (and i-la-gu), -dam-ku, Ku-ti-im 
(RTC 118, and Gu-ti-um, passim) 
-Gu-la, is-gu-un (and is-ku-nu), i-la-gu 
(and i-li-ku), Gu-ti-um (and Ku-ti-lm) , 

only in Gu-da-rai-sum 10 - , HSS X Hi, GU. 
DUg.A , and Gu-d[a]-sum /Qudasum/) 

i-za-az, ap-za-za-tim, i-na-za-ar 

BAD-Za-an-ze KI (and B&3-Za-zi KI , both in 

HSS X), a-ze-jja-me (§ D yB)> pu-ze-num, 

u-su-ze (and unsu-zi) 

us-zi-iz, &u-zu-zi-is, -na-zi-ir, u-su-zi 

(and u-su-ze) 

mu-za-zu, li-zu-fca, wu-zu-is 

only in sar-ru -uz-zu(m)) 

ZU * zu 

From the earliest historical times down to and including the 
Ur III and Old Assyrian Periods, normally only one sign is used for 
a syllable beginning with a stop or sibilant, without any attempt 
being made to distinguish between voiced, voiceless, and (in Akka- 
dian) emphatic consonants. Thus DA stands for da, ta, or £a, DAM 
for dam , tarn , or %zm , ZA for za, sa, or ga. The existence of such 
pairs of signs as BU and P&, GI and KI, TU and DU does not mean 
that the signs BU, GI, DU are used to indicate voiced consonants 
and the signs Pu", KI, TU are used for voiceless consonants. As the 
charts (and additional examples not quoted here) show, both rows of 
signs are used equally for voiced and voiceless consonants. 

3h a simplified form, not counting rare uses and local varia- 
tions, the above chart appears as follows in the Sargonic Period: 
Labials: BA BI Bf (BE) BU 










(SE n ) 



Dentals: DA TI 

Velars: GA GI 


Sibilants: ZA ZI 


(discussed on pp. 3kff») 

Throughout the 'whole course of cuneiform writing no attempt 
was ever made to indicate the exact character of a final stop or 
sibilant: AG serves for ag, ak, or aq, GAD serves for gad , gat, or 
gat » AZ serves for az, as, or a§. Only in the Old Babylonian 
Period did a custom develop of expressing as by the sign AS. 

Most of the signs used for the simple syllabary in the Sargonic 
Period include signs transliterated with a "voiced" consonant, as 
BA, BI, 3U, GA, GI, GU, ZA, ZI, ZU. But the system is not pure. 
For the dentals the common signs are DA, TI, TU; and beside signs 
transliterated with a "voiced" consonant, such as BU, GI, GU, signs 
with a "voiceless" consonant, such as Pi), KI, KU, are also in use. 

This definition of the Sargonic syllabic writing is not in 
agreement with von Soden, Das akkadische SyHabar p. 15, and Labat, 
Manuel d'epigraphie akkadienne p. 19, in which it is stated that 
the distinction between voiced, voiceless, and emphatics is not 
fully realized in the Old Akkadian writing. The truth is that the 
distinction is never indicated in any of the cuneiform writings be- 
fore the Old Babylonian Period. 

Once it is realized that indication of distinction in voice and 
emphasis is lacking in the Sargonic system of writing, one may le- 
gitimately ask oneself whether the Old Akkadians themselves chose 
to ignore that distinction in their writing or whether they borrowed 
the custom from elsewhere, namely from the Sumerians. The lack of 
indication of emphasis by special signs can be explained simply. 
The Old Akkadians did not indicate the emphatics because the Sume- 
rian system, which they borrowed, did not indicate them. The lack 
of signs to indicate emphasis in Sumerian is naturally due to the 
fact that the emphatics did not exist in that language. The lack 
of distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants in Sumerian 
is another matter. As far as I can see, all the Sumerologists have 


taken it for granted that the Sumerian writing had two rows of signs 
to indicate correctly the voiced and voiceless consonants (such as 
GA and KA, DI and TI, ZU and SIT), and that consequently the Sume- 
rian language had both voiced and voiceless consonants. In spite 
of this universally-held opinion-, it is my contention that the dis- 
tinction in voice in the spoken language, and consequently in the 
writing, was unknown to the Sumerians. This can be supported by 
the following arguments. 

In the vast majority of Sumerian loan words in Akkadian, 
specifically those words which we have a good right to believe had 
passed to Akkadian in the early periods, we may observe that Akka- 
dian has a voiceless consonant corresponding to what normally is 
considered a voiced consonant in Sumerian: BNGAR - ikkarum , E.GAL = 
ekailum (,»■ ? akallum ) , GUR - kurrum, DUB - tuppum , NU.BANDA. - 
laputtum , BARAG * parakkum , BALA =* palatum , G0«ZA - kussi^um , BA« 
BA.ZA = pappasum , ZA,.3AR - siparrum , A.ZU « as urn , ZU.AB =* apsum , 
\$hat this seems to indicate is not that there was a phonetic shift 
from a Sumerian voiced to an Akkadian voiceless, but that in the 
period when the Sumerian loan words passed to Akkadian the so-called 
voiced consonants of Sumerian sounded voiceless to the Akkadians* 

Conversely, the same result can be obtained from the observa- 
tion of the spelling of the loan words which passed from Akkadian 
to Sumerian and of the Akkadian proper names occuring in Sumerian 
texts. Akkadian words and names containing a voiceless stop nor- 
mally occur in early Sumerian sources written with a so-called 
voiced consonant, as in the writing MAS.GA.NA (- maskanum ) , GU.ZI. 
DA (» kus£tum ) , MA. DA (= matum ) 3 Da-as~ma-tum (~ Tasma c tum ). Since 
the Old Akkadians certainly pronounced the stops in maskanum , 
kusituni j matum , Tasma c tum as voiceless, the Sumerians should have 
expressed these consonants with the signs KA, KU, and TA, if these 
signs truly expressed a voiceless consonant. Since, instead, they 
used the signs GA, GU, and DA, the conclusion must be drawn that 
KA, KU, and TA (and other signs of this group, such as KE, , PA, Pi) 
did not express a voiceless consonant, but something else, perhaps 
an aspirated velar or dental, respectively. 

The sibilants present the same picture. Akkadian voiceless £ 
is regularly expressed in Sumerian by a sign expressing a so-called 


voiced consonant. Cf . Sin written ZU.EN, sirdum written ZI,IR.TUM, 
sapalum written ZA.BA.LUM, and arsanum written AR.ZA,NA, 

Thus the consonantal pattern of early Sumerian can be recon- 
structed as containing two contrasting sets of phonemes. One set, 
written by the signs transliterated with a voiced consonant of the 
type BA, DA, GA, ZA, expresses phonemes b/|>, d/t, g/k, z/s, which 
sounded like voiceless p, t, k, s to the Akkadians . And another 
set, written by the signs transliterated with a voiceless consonant 
of the type PA, TA, KA, SA, expresses perhaps the phonemes p f , t 1 , 
k f , s \ Since the Akkadians did not have aspirated stops they ex- 
pressed Sumerian loan words containing the phonemes p^, t^, k_^ 
simply by their voiceless p, t, k. But they were fully able to ex- 
press the Sumerian aspirated sibilant sj^ by their own s, ^ (see be- 

The Sumerian consonantal pattern can be compared with Chinese, 
where the distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants is 
likewise non-existent. The two sets of phonemes in Chinese ares 
our transliterated T, pronounced as d/t, and heard as d by non- 
Chinese, contrasted with our transliterated T 1 , pronounced as t^, 
and heard as t by non-Chinese. 

One more observation can be made in connection with the dis- 
tributional pattern of the stops and sibilants in a final position 
in the pre-Ur III Sumerian, From the regular occurrence of such 
cases as kalag-ga , dub-ba , pad-da , nunuz-zi , as against the non- 
existence of such cases as ,. t . ak-ka , , ,. # ap-pa , . ... at-ta , .... as- 
sa, we can draw the conclusion that only voiceless consonants could 
appear in a final position, and not the aspirated consonants. 

In the Old Babylonian Period a clear-cut distinction was being 
established in the writing of the voiced and voiceless stops and 
sibilants. In the case of stops the distinction is fully realized. 
Thus the phoneme d is expressed by signs DA, DI, DU, the phoneme t 
by TA, TI, TU. In the case of sibilants the voiced ZA, ZI, ZU are 
interchangeable with SA, SI, SU in early Old Babylonian, but here 
also a full distinction was gradually being achieved. 

The opportunity to use two sets of signs to denote the voiced 
and voiceless consonants was given by consonantal shifts which took 
place in Sumerian between Ur III and the Old Babylonian Period, 

The shifts are: a) voiceless to voiced (t > d or s > z) and b) as- 
pirated voiceless to voiceless ( t f >tor£>3), discussed more 
fully below on pp. 39f • * 

The evidence for the phonetic character of the Sumerian pho- 
nemes in the Old Babylonian Period comes from the late (and fre- 
quently "learned*) Sumerian loan words in Akkadian* Cf. GU.ZA.LAL = 
guzalu (as against older GU.ZA = kussi^im ) , A.ZU.GAL ™ azugallu and 
azugallatu (as against older A.ZU = asum and E.GAL ^ akallum ) , DUR. 
GAR « durgaru, A.GuB.BA = agubbu, GUD.HAg » gumakbu , BA.AN.DUg.DUg » 
bandudu (as against older BA.AN.DU R - pattu ) , and many others. Cf« 
von Soden, Orient. n,s. XVI 72, Salonen, SO Xl/l p. 23 n. 1, 

Having seen above that the written sign ZA stands for za, sa 
in Sumerian, and for za, sa, j|a in Akkadian, we reach the self- 
evident conclusion that the written sign SA (and of course SI, SU) 
cannot stand for sa (and si, su), but for some other sibilant. 

The words spelled i-sa-ga-nu , su-gU"Un , su-ga-nu , si-kil-ti , 

V V "*" V 

is-gu-un , is-ki-nu , mas-ga-r& can be derived from one root, namely 

from SKN or SKN, only if we either take the signs SA and SU to 

stand for sa and su or if we take IS and MS to stand for is and 
— X — x v —X 

mas. The same is true of writing ga-ti-is-6u 5 which should be ad- 

mrn-mnrr , V V 

justed either to ga-ti-is-su or ga-ti-is -su . Since the latter 
possibility cannot be considered because is is written only with 
the IZ sign (cf* e.g. I-ba-lj[ -IZ /ippalis/ , faa-zi -IZ /basis /; fur- 
thermore, ip-ru -UZ /iprus/ , ir-ku -UZ /irkus /; da-AZ -ga-ri-ni 
/taskarinnl/ ? for mas we have no evidence) , only the first alter- 
native can be seriously entertained. The pattern of AZ, having the 
values az, as, a§, corresponds exactly to the pattern of AG, having 
the values ag, ak, a<j. In view of these arguments, I proposed 
first in AJSI I1II (1936-37) 3lt, then in Hurrians and Subarians p. 
30 n. 55, that written s of Old Akkadian signs not only corresponds 
to £ of later periods (as proposed by Thureau-Dangin in RA XXIII 
[1926] 28f. and Le syllabaire accadien p. iii), but that it was 
also pronounced £ in the Old Akkadian Period, My position was crit- 
icised by Goetze in JNE5 V (19U6) 166 n. 3 in the following fashion: 
n Gelb's notion that Old Akkadian writes ! £ ! but pronounces £ is 
untenable. For my opinion see provisionally Orientalia (NS), VI 
111, n. 5." There is nothing in Orientalia to weaken the arguments 


brought forth above. Cf, also what follows. 

Again the question may be asked whether the observation that 
old written s was pronounced s can be adjusted with the rules of 
Sumerian writing or not. The answer can be given clearly in the 
positive on the basis of the observation of the early Sumerian loan 
words in Akkadian, such as EN^.SI - issi ^akkum , DU3.SAR » tupsarrum , 
IE, SAG * ursanum , * a BAR.Sl(G) « parsigum , ^S.SI = esium , DUB. SI, 
^ * tupsikkum , and many others, Falkenstein observed in 2k XLII 
(l°3h) 153 that of the three various types of correspondences be- 
tween Sumerian s and Akkadian sibilants, the type of Sumerian s 
corresponding to Akkadian s represents "die alteste Lehnworter- 
schicht, ,, As a consequence of this observation we can draw the 
conclusion not only that the written Sumerian s corresponds to Akka- 
dian s ? but that signs containing s were actually pronounced s in 
the early periods of Sumerian, Thus if we intend to apply Thureau- 
Dangin's system of transliteration to the old Sumerian spelling us- 
sa we should transliterate it not as us-sa (as proposed by Lands - 
berger in OLZ XX7II [1°2U] 722 and others) but as us-sa ^. Only 
for post-Old Babylonian can we accept the statement that written s 
was also pronounced £, as proved by the late Akkadian loan word 
tuppussft derived from Sumerian DUB.US.SA. Cf . also p. 'fO. 

Outside of the sibilants presented on pp, 31ff.> in which signs 
containing £ function for the phonemes _z, s, and § in Akkadian and 
for one phoneme z/s in Sumerian, the following signs for syllables 
with sibilants occur in Old Akkadian: 

SA SE.^ SI SU for the phoneme s^ 

SA SI SU for the phoneme s^ 

SA SE SU, for the phoneme s. 

Based on observations made by Uhgnad in M&S pp. 21ff., Thureau- 
Dangin drew the conclusion in RA XXIII (1°26) 28f. (cf, also idem in 
RA XXX [1933] °3f« and Le sy llabaire accadien p. iii) that signs 
with initial s correspond to later Akkadian sL (i.e., Hebrew s - 
Arabic s) and s ? (i.e., Hebrew £ « Arabic J) , while those with ini- 
tial s correspond to later Akkadian s^ (i,e., Hebrew s * Arabic t). 

The clearest of the groups of syllables with sibilants is that 
of SA, SI, SU, in which the initial sibilant represents So, i.e. 

Arabic t, which corresponds to s in Hebrew and in Akkadian from the 
Old Babylonian Period on# These signs occur e.g. in ma-sa-lum , mu- 
sa-lum , Hu-su-lum , dam~si-il-su and dam-si-il-su (both late copies) 
from the root KS-L; u-sa-ab, u~sa-bu (passim), but also once each 
tuHsa-bu j wa-fll-bu , suHSj-ibHma from the root ^sS~B; a-sa-ri-su 
(late copy) from ^S^R; 5a-ni-i from §3^3 arnsi from-RS,'-?; 
sa-ir from S-VB?; si-na-tim perhaps from S*,. N. On the other side, 
cf* -a-sa-at from ^NS^; e-ra-si-is , I-ri-sa-at from 3 ,RS,; 
sa-li-is-tim (late -copy.) from i!L IS- ; i-ba~ni-su > -ma (late copy) 
from QUS-. ^ ilis is ^e sibilant that regularly occurs in the spel- 
ling of the determinative -relative pronoun su, si, sa, sa-at , su-ut , 
etc. We omit from consideration the unique occurrences of SE in 
Se-il -& a and of SU in Su -nam-in-da-a ~ and ■ Su-^uhiu (see under 
signs in the Syllabary ) , 

Hebrew sin - Arabic sin is represented in the Old Akkadian 
spellings I -si -dm- , from the root Sp^yMj -sa-tu from the root 
S^D^gj -sa-ra-at from SgRR; sa-ti-da , si-da-ti[m] from S^W} sa- 
ap-da-su from §-Pj li-se -. -u-ni-kum-ma from NS~\ 

The most common sibilant is of course s~ = Hebrew sin, Arabic 
sin, represented in the spellings i-sa-ga-nu , su~gu-un , su-ga-nu , 
si-kil-ti from S..EN$ ra-si-im from E^S-; iis^se ^ , us-si- 5 mis- 
sa-am, from v^i* i-sa-da-ru from S^R; I-sa-ru-um from \SJR$ 
na-^a-si from N 3 J>-,s Li-sa-num from 15-,; u-sa-lim , sa-li-mi-gu 
(late copy), sa-lim , su-lum from S-LMj - ^a-grm-us , Sa-am-si from 
^1 M ^1' si-ip-ri from S^E; Su-mu -, Su-mi-su , Su, -mu- (once) from 
\ n *> Su-ru~us- and Su ^-ru-^us- from ^RS^ si-na-at from Lw, 11- 
se- ^-bi-lam , li-se - ^-ri^am beside li-si-ri-am , li-su-rJL-^am . This 
is the sibilant that regularly occurs in the writing of the pronom- 
inal suffixes -su, -sa,, -si, -su-nu , -si-in , etc., occasionally also 
spelled -su^, -s^-nu^ and -su . -ni-si-im . Cf . also the irregular 
spellings of ma~ka-ar-su-nu , A-sa-sa beside A-sa-sa (FM), Su-ni- 
tum beside Su-ni-tum , and ka-sa-Ilm from the root $Ll. 

Although certain conclusions can be drawn as to the distribu- 
tion of sibilants in Old Akkadian, the picture is not consistent. 

S^ seems to be expressed quite regularly by the signs SA, SI, 
SU, but there are exceptions in tu-sa-bu , i-su , ti-su (sibilant ir- 
regular also in other Semitic languages) and other cases from late 
copies. Although no evidence exists as to the phonetic quality of 


s-j, we know that this sibilant was distinguished from L' in the 
Sargonic Period. For its possible pronunciation in the direction 
of Arabic i, perhaps not in Mesopotamia proper but in an outlying 
region, note the Ur III spellings Se-li-bu-um and Ta-la-bu 
6.ssi D akkum of Sabum) , <Se>-li-bu-um and Sa-Ia-bu (issi^akkum of 
Ansan), Se-li-bu-tum and Sa->Ii-bu-tum , In-si~wi-ir DUMU Ad-da-gi-na 
(Oriental Institute A 1*521), I-ta-wi-ir DUMU Ad-da-gi-na (A 2869), 

and I-ga-4ri.-ir DIMU Ad-da-ginia (NBC 2223, in all three cases 

vv -* v \ 

issi^kkum of garsi). * 

S 2 is regularly expressed by the signs SA, SI, and presumably 
SU (not attested). 

S, is regularly expressed by the signs SA, SI, SU, but there 
are exceptions, as in ma-ba-ar-suHnu , ^a-sa-Ito , and others. 

On the basis of examples quoted above, Thureau-Dangin's recon- 
struction of the two Sargonic sibilants is thus fully confirmed: the 

V V V 

signs SA, SI, SU stand for syllables containing a Sargonic phoneme 
which corresponds to the Semitic s~, while the signs SA, SI, SU 
stand for syllables containing another Akkadian phoneme which cor- 
responds to the Semitic £., and jL. The picture is, however, further 
complicated by the existence of an additional set of signs repre- 
senting syllables with a sibilant which has up to now not been ade- 
quately considered ar^ywhere. 

In addition to SA, there Is also the sign SA which sometimes 
alternates with S A, as in mas-sa-tum , mas-sa-tum. or u-sa-ri-ib » u- 
sa-rf-ib . Its regular occurrence in sa-lim may be a case of condi- 
tional writing in this word only, due to the fact that SA = silim 
(■ ssalim ) in Sumerian. 

The sign M (we should rather call it Sl.g) occurs in the word 
i-ha-se , written also i-ba-se .**., Ba-si~um , Ba-si-um , and [sul-ub-si , 
all from the well known verb basaum "to be," in which the exact 
quality of the sibilant is unfortunately still unknown. For this 
sign cf. also ni-se beside ni-se ...., again with a sibilant of uncer- 
tain quality. 

Also the sign SU, alternates frequently with SU, as noted in 
examples on p. 36. In addition we find ik-su i -ra , ik-su-ra j a-ga- 
sa-ar , ki-se-ir-tim , guH3u » -ra-im , rgu1?~su-ra-im , from a root with 
an undefinable sibilant. For the sign SU. we must note its regular 

occurrence in the spelling of the demonstrative -personal pronoun 
sui , sui -a, Su » -a-tum- , su, -nu-ti , beside rarer spellings with su, 
su-aj the Fern, of this pronoun is si, si-a-ti . 

The signs SA, si, SUi interchange so frequently with the SA, 
SI, SU signs that one is inclined to draw the conclusion that the 
sibilants expressed in the two rows of signs are one and the same 
phoneme in the Sargonic Period* Still, there are some aspects 
which should be further considered. One of them is the regular 
occurrence of the Su\ sign in the spelling of the demonstrative- 
personal pronoun (quoted above), corresponding to the Arabic (ha-) 
da, dl. That the sign SUi actually expresses the Semitic d is of 
course impossible, since we know that the Semitic d corresponds to 
z even in the oldest Akkadian, as in uznum , afaazum . Still, there 
is no way around the fact that Sumerian has a row of sibilants par- 
tially different from the Semitic s « and s-, and we may be forced 
to conclude that the Akkadian spellings with signs of the Si class 
are to be considered as leftovers from a period in which Akkadian 
recognised a phoneme z {~ Sy) < d beside the phoneme s~ < £, 

The existence of three rows of sibilants (beside ZA, ZI, ZU) 
implies that the Sumerian language originally had three different 
sibilants (beside the z/s phoneme discussed above^ pp.- Jiff,). 
These sibilants are £., expressed by signs SA, SI, 3U; s~ expressed 
by signs SA, SI, SU, and a third sibilant, which we call s, (in 
order not to confuse it with the Semitic s~)> expressed by signs 
SA, SUi, and perhaps S&. Of course my writing s,, sL, s» is intended 
simply to denote the existence of three different sibilants in 
Sumerian and is not intended to imply that the three Sumerian sibi- 
lants should be equated sound by sound with the three corresponding 
Semitic sibilants. 

While different types of sibilants are thus more or less clear- 
ly indicated in signs for open syllables beginning with a sibilant 
and ending in a vowel, no such distinction is made in signs repre- 
senting the type vowel plus sibilant, such as AS, IS, US, in which 
the final sibilant is any of the three s phonemes. Our transliter- 
ation of the signs 3AR, SUM, MUS follows Thureau-Dangin f s system; 
in this type, too, the exact character of the sibilant was never 


During the period of the 1st I)ynasty of Babylon several impor- 
tant phonetic shifts took place both in Sumerian and Akkadian* That 
they must have begun even earlier can be concluded from the fact 
that the three sibilants of the Sargonic Period occur in free inter- 
change in the Ur III Period. The picture that emerges in the Old 
Babylonian Period is that the Sargonic s,. and s~ were coalesced 
into one sibilant s, expressed in the writing by the signs of the 
jL class, namely SA, SE, SI, SU. The voiceless sibilant s was ex- 
pressed by the signs of the s., . and s. class, namely SA, SI, SU,' 
S^, also SA/-, SAG, SIG-, etc*, while the corresponding voiced sibi- 
lant z was expressed by the signs ZA, ZI, ZU. All this was made 
possible by the phonetic shifts in Sumerian illustrated on the fol- 
lowing chart. 








Sound Shift 

and Later 


Phoneme Sound 

Phoneme Sound 






b la) 








£ lb) 








d la > 








t lb > 








l la) 








]£ lb) 








/ a) 





ll (» 




£ lb), 







i- (- 



s (not 

z) lc) > 3 > 







Footnotes to the chart; 


1) Old Babylonian sound shifts: a) voiceless > voiced (p > b, t > 
d, k > g, £ > z); b) aspirated voiceless > voiceless (r^ > p, 
il > i* KL > £' Si t~ i-i-2-' > -' c ^ fricative dental t [= s, ] > 

£, not z; d) another fricative dental (here symbolized by the 
requirements of pattern as) i 1 !> sL] > fricative voiceless 
sibilant £. 

2) Some sound shifts must have taken place even before the Sargonic 
Period: sound t (~ s, ) is not clearly distinguished from s^ ( s 
a^jg) in Sargonic. Sound (symbolized as) t 1 (= eL) begins to be 
confused in the Sargonic Period with s f (- s- „). 

3) Old Sumerian i^ (written SA, SI, SU) and s, (written. si, S&, 
SUi ) became s in the standard Sumerian of the Old Babylonian 
Period. This may be reconstructed from the form of the late 
Sumerian loan words in Akkadian, such as DU3.tfe.SA a tuppussu , 
IGI.sX - igisu a SAG.KGD « sankuttu , and many others. But in 
the Assyrian tradition the old Sumerian £ remained s, as in su- 
bur 3 su-uk-kal , sa-am, etc. Cf, Jacobsen, OIP LVIII 2<?3f., 
making the observation but giving a different interpretation. 
The standard Sumerian £ > £ shift may be responsible for the 
sporadic cases of s ;> £ found in Kassite Babylonian: Old Bab- 
ylonian Subartum > Kassite Subartum (in Assyrian throughout only 
Subartum), Old Babylonian sukkallum > later sukkailum . Old Bab- 
ylonian Is in > later Is in . * 

3« General Remarks 

In observing the usage of syllabic spelling in the Old Akka- 
dian Period one is struck by its general consistency throughout the 
wide expanse of the Old Akkadian Empire. This uniformity can be 
observed not only in the official documents of the chancellery, but 
also in prxvate letters and economic texts. Cf. such regular spel- 
lings as sa-lim (with sa), found in Akkad, Elam, Gasur, and Diyala, 
of i-ba-le (with se), found in Sumer, Gasur, and Diyala (with two 
exceptions spelled j-ba-sey . in Diyala), of Im (DU) -da-lik (with 
fe ) , found in Akkad, Sumer, Elam, Gasur, and Diyala. 

One of the remarks made by von Soden, AS p. lU, refers to the 
abnormally large number of homophonous signs. The truth of the mat- 
ter is that homophony plays a very small role in Old Akkadian, as 
one can judge for himself by observing the use of the syllabic signs 
for vowels (pp. 2ifff.) and for stops and sibilants (pp» 28ff. and 


34ff.). No matter whether one accepts my interpretation of special 
signs for syllables with onset or release, as proposed, above, pp* 
25ff, y or offers another interpretation, there is no way of taking 
the pairs BI and BI, MA and MA, I and i, U and lj to represent ho- 
mophonous signs, since they do not as a rule interchange with each 
other. Even in the case of pairs of signs which interchange with 
each other, such as BU and P$, DU and TU, GU and KU, SA and Sit, 5U 
and SUi , some arguments may be brought forth that the signs origi- 
nally represented two different phonemes. Of course, in our aver- 
sion towards homophony we should not insist too much on the purity 
of any system, since the interchange of influences from various 
schools and areas may have sometimes provoked the existence of more 
than one sign for the same syllable. But such occurrences of ho- 
mophony as do exist are rather rare in the older phases of Akkadian 
and do not begin to be amply attested until the latest phases of 
cuneiform writing. 

Although theoretically there is full justification for poly- 
phony in Sumerian logography, as there is in any other logo -syllabic 
writing, the polyphony of syllabic values is rare both in Sumerian 
and Akkadian. Clear cases of polyphony in Old Akkadian are LUK and 
MuTtfj RI and (rarely) TAL; RI and (rarely) RIL; AB and (rarely) 
ESj MI, i, and LIj AH and (rarely) fly BI and DE; WA, WI, V/Uj 
SI and LIM. But it is both interesting and important to note that 
out of 17 syllabic values which Deimel, SI, 3rd ed. , lists for the 
sign ID, only one syllabic value ud/t/fr can be safely assumed for 
the Sargonic Period. Similar conclusions can be drawn in respect 
to the values of the signs BE, Bi, DAN, NAM, UTL, KUR, BU, UR, and 
a few others. 

Outside of economic texts, which use a substantial number of 
logograms for the various classes of foods, objects, and beings, 
one can observe a decisive preference for syllabic spellings in pub- 
lic and private documents of the Sargonic Period. Such character- 
istic spellings as ma-dam , a-bi , be-li , im-ftur , i-na-da-an show that 
in this period even common words were regularly spelled syllabi- 
cally, not logographically. 

Outside of the final position in a word, as in ma-ia-Ium , da- 
num, the consonant + vowel + consonant type of syllabic values is 

relatively rare in comparison with signs of the consonant + vowel 
or vowel + consonant types, 

Writing of consonantal quality by means of double consonants 
is very rare in Old Akkadian, As against the typical spellings 
with single consonants in da-num , da-na-at , sa-ra-at , du-mu-ki-im , 
u-Ja-al, we find occasional spellings with double consonants, as in 
ad-da /atta/ , da-ki-ba-an-ni , ib-ba-al-gi-it , te-ir-rJL-is , and reg- 
ularly in the words um-mi , um-me , and usnse ,^. 

Another method of indicating double consonants can be found in 
such spellings as sar-um /sarrumA I-nin^um (beside I-nin-num « 
3 N*^* -gar-ad /qarrad/ » Il-at (beside Il-la-at ), Si-mur-um 
/Simurrum/ (TMH V 151 rev,), Za-ar-um /Sarrum/ (beside Za-ar-ru-um ) , 

Lu-ufa-is-an (S. xii, beside Lu-uh-hi-is-sa-an , RA XXVIII 2), Tum-al 

(UET III 13&* rev,, beside Tum-ma-al , passim), Cf. also the 

discussion in FM pp, 238f., and, in Old Babylonian, -dan-at = 

-dan-na-at listed in AOr XVIIlA PP. 26f , 

A third method of indicating double consonants appears in the 
spelling mi-i-tum /mi fr turn / found in the Sumerian written dates of 
Gudea (MAD III 187). Parallels from a later period are found in 
the spelling li-i-ba /libba / and ki-i-ta-am / 4cittam4 occurring in 
the inscription of Lipit-Istar (Gadd, EDSA PI, 3 BM 111*683 i 18, ii 8), 

Spellings using signs of the consonant + vowel + consonant 
type do not as a rule indicate double consonants. Thus writings I- 
sar-ru-um , tf-daHni-sar-ra-am , U-bar-ru-um , Li-frur-ri-im , im-bur-ru 
should properly be interpreted as I^sa(r)-ru~um , U-da-mi-sa(r) -ra- 
am , U-ba(r)-ru-ura , Li-bu(r)-ri-im > im-huW-ru , This spelling me- 
thod is paralleled by another in which such names as are listed a- 
bove are spelled I -sar-um , U-bar-um , and Id-bur-an-ni- * What these 
two methods of spelling indicate is first, the main basis, without 
any grammatical endings, such as isar or irofeur , and then the gram- 
matical endings spelled either with the repetition of the final con- 
sonant of the word, as in I-sar-ru-um , or without it, as in I-sar- 

um. The same method is exemplified in the custom of writing grara- 

"""" v KI 

matical endings after the determinative, as in Is -nun -im (see 

above p. 22) and generally in Sumerian. Cf. also Kraus in Scritti in 

onore di Giuseppe Furlani I (1957) 103-8, Abnormal "broken" writings 

occur in J-lum-gur-ad /Ilum-qurad/ , Pre-Sargonic, DINGJE -su-gur-ad 

/ilsu-qurad /, Ur III, and Tur-<am-JL-li 5 etc. /Turam-ilT/ . Written 
double consonants which do not indicate double consonants (conso- 
nantal quantity), but a hiatus, pause (open juncture) are shown in 
the following examples: Ku-ru-ub-bi-la-ag beside Ku-ru-4*b-I-la-ag 
/Kurub-Ilag/, Sar-ra^urnHfld-i-li beside Sar-ru-um-i-lf /Sarrum-ilT /, 
I-sar-ra-fei beside I-sar-a-fai /isar-a^x/ , Nu -ub-&t -DI MGIR beside 
Nu-ub -DINGIR /tiiXi-ilwi/ t A-bu^amHfni -LUGAL beside A-pum-insar /Abum- 
isar/, Ma-at-ti-JL-lx beside Ha-at-£-3JL /Mat-ill / 1 En-nu-um-mi -ll 
beside En-num-i-lf /Bnnum-ill /j etc. From the later period we can 
quote Te-fai-ip-pa-pu /Te&ip-apu / in NPN pp. lf?lf. Similar is the 
case of spellings in which not a pause but an aleph or the like is 
indicated, as in ir-ra-am - ya-gan /lr 3 am-Dagan / 5 ir-rf - ^a-gan (be- 
side spellings ir-e- from R°» *), ir-ri-ib , ir-ri-ib (beside spel- 
lings ir-e-ib , I-ri-ib , etc., from R°~3?). 

Writing of vocalic quantity is attested only in ^a-wa-a-ti and 
us -da-a-bi -la » 


Under auxiliary marks we include all those signs which did not 
have any exact correspondences in the language but were used as 
added help in the understanding of the writing. The two main classes 
are the unpronouneed determinatives, discussed above pp. 22f., and 
the punctuation marks. 

The main punctuation mark in all the fully developed writings 
appears in the division between words, either in a concrete form, 
such as a line, a wedge, or a case, or in a zero form, such as an 
empty space. 

The Sumerian writing as originally constructed required the 
enclosing of each word, or rather of a small unit which may have 
been considered as one word by the Sumerians* ift a ease. This prin- 
ciple is still followed: to a large extent in the monumental inscrip- 
tions of the Sargonic Period. Thus besides single ^ords, such as 
Ma-ra-am -^N. ZU , da-num , LUGAL, ki-ib-ra-tim , ar-ba-im , we have com- 
pounds, such as 10 LAI 1 KAS+X, in MJ 1, sar-ri-su-nu 3 , in u-roi-su , 
in AMAR.DA KI , sa DU3 (YOS I 10). But Inconsistencies frequently 
appear due to space conditions in the case of constructions written 

with many signs or even short constructions written with large 
signs. Thus we find E sn-lf 1 in one case in BE 12, but in two 
cases in BE I 1; su DUB su-a in one case in HDP X PI, 3, 1, but in 
two cases in MDP VI PI, 2, 1. Of. also P, Naster, "La ligne double 
dans le Code de 3ammurabi" in AOr XVI l/2 pp. 205-209. 

Considerably more leeway in word division can be found in Sar- 
gonic sources on clay tablets, such as letters and economic texts. 
In these texts, the original case developed into a full horizontal 
line, in which one to three words could appear, depending on the 
length of the line. The words within a line are never separated. 
Only in the Ari-sen inscription (RA IX PI, I) do we find a division 
mark in the form of a vertical line, which occasionally serves to 
separate some words. 

Beside horizontal division lines used to separate the lines 
from each other, a double line is often used in economic texts to 
separate various entries, as in MAD I 53 > 163, etc., or to separate 
itemized entries from the total, as in MAD I 273, 285, etc. In- 
stead of a double line a large empty space often serves the same 
purpose, as in MAD I 271, 289, etc. Both double lines and empty 
spaces are found e.g. in MAD I 163, 206, and 326. 

A special mark in the form of the PAB sign is used to check 
off various entries in a list. Its function is that of our modern 
check mark. 

The custom of using check marks begins in the Pre-Sargonic 
Period (Nikolski, Dok. I 1|1, £2, misinterpreted as "Zusammenfassung 
dieser kur-Leute" by Deimel in Orient. XXXIV i*l; PBS IX 83; TMH V 
11, 39, Ui; Orient. XXI 65), finds extensive use in the Sargonic 
Period (RTC 96; FM 33; HSS X 51, 187, 188; MAD I 86, 106, 232; 
etc.), and it begins to die out during the Ur III Period (Jean, SA 
LXXVIII; Nies, UDT 58; Pinches AT 6U; NikolskL, Dok. II 26U; 
Orient. VI 60), A somewhat parallel use of the PAB sign can be 
observed in TCL XI 156 in the Isin-Iarsa Period and in the omen text 
CT XXXIX 38. The same function is apparently accomplished by an 
oblique wedge in a text published in Fara III 28 (cf. also p. 9*) 
and by marks in the form of circles and half -circles in the eco- 
nomic texts of the Kassite Period (cf. BE XIV pp. 16f,). * 

Entirely unique in Old Akkadian is the occurrence of a single 

oblique wedge in the case -of I-li-ia-fri (MAD I 302 rev.). The 
second part of the name being written below and to the right of the 
first part, an oblique wedge is added to show that a-^i belongs 
with i-lx and is not to be considered a separate word. The use of 
double oblique wedges in the same function is known from later 
periods at Nuzi (HSS XIV PI. 103 No. 2^9:10), Alalakh, and Ugarit. 


A few general remarks can be made on two formal features of Old 
Akkadian as differing from later periods. 

The distinction between horizontal, vertical, and oblique forms 
is not fully established in the case of the following signs: the 
sign AS ( Syllabary No. 1), the sign TAB ( Syllabary No. 90), the 
sign I ( Syllabary No. 103), the sign ES ( Syllabary No. 275). Cf. 
also the discussion in Thureau-Dangin, REC p. 21f . No. 119. 

One of the hitherto unobserved characteristics of cuneiform 
writing is the frequent interchange of signs for which a priori two 
different readings can be assumed. As can be tested on the basis 
of many copies and original inscriptions, the interchange of such 
similar signs as JJU and RI is not due to a misreading on the part 
of a modern copyist but forms an inherent part of the system. Cf. 
the following cases: 

Copied RI for £U: A-RI-ti and A-fiU-ti (both passim in Deimel, 
Fara II p. 19*, and other occurrences at Fara); LA.BUR.SIR .RI 
(PBS V 3U ii) for IA.BUR.SIR KI BU , in Sargonic; Rl -wa-wa (TCL II 
5539 tablet and seal; B3 III 77$ Ui7; etc.) for Qu -wa-wa (Orient. 
XXIII 1570 passim); 3A.TAB-du^-RI-um for BA.TAB -duk-ku-um (MAD III 
102); ARAD-RI-la (YOS IV 311 rev.) for ARAD- ftu-la , all in Ur III. * 

Copied gjj for RI: GIS zi-8U~num (TMH V 1U6) for GI3 zi-ri-num ; 
Si-da-ba -ftU (ITT Il/2 3122) for Si-da-ba -RI (ITT Il/l p. 35, 1*61*0) , 
in Sargonic; HU -si-in (Reisner, TUT 192) for Ri-si-in (R\ V)* 
Pak-sa- SU (jtt V p. 55, 9835; p. 60, 99SD for Dafa-sa -RI ( /Tafes- 
atal/ , Gelb, HS p. Ill); gu ~ba-ga-da (CT VII 27, 18376 rev. i) for 
Rj-ba-ga-da (KD?, passim); Lugal-ma-gur g-gU ( 2 NT 726 rev. i) for 
LugalHma-gur q -ri (Orient. XXIII 2155 passim); Lugal-nam-tar -HU (2 
NT 688) perhaps for Lugal-nam-tar-ri , all in Ur III. 

Copied DA for KAB: Na-DA-tum (CT V 29ff. passim and elsewhere) 
for Na-kab-tum (passim), in Ur Ills A-DA- se-in (AnOr XXI 278 v 10) 
for A-kap-se-en (ITT III 6$k5 ii). Cf. also DA -ru-ru and KAB -ru-ru 
in MftD'l p. 189. 

Copied ZA for A: passim in Fara and Pre-Sargonicj cf. also 
ZA-wa-an (MDP X PI. 3, la and 2) for Awanj su,-ZA (ZA IV I4.O6) for 
suj-a, both in Sargonicj 3e-lx -ZA -ri-ik (ITT III $21*1) for Be-li- 
a-rf-ik ; M.lfL KI -ZA (CT XXI 27, 90056) for EN.LfL KI -a, both in 
Ur III. 

Copied SA for it d UTU-SA for ^TU-^ (both passim in MAD I); 
SA- ^i-bi for j- ^i-bi (both in Nikolski, Dok. I p. lolt, and De 
Genouillac, TSA p. 110, Pre-Sargonic) . 

Copied ZU for SU: Gir-ZU KI for Gir-su K I (both in Pre-Sargonic 
texts from Lagash); Ba-lu -ZU (MAD I) for Ba-lu-su ; P0.SA-ZTJ (MAD 
I) for P&.SAhsu. Copied SU for ZU perhaps in Be-la-su-nu (BE I PI. 
VII ii) for Be-la-zu-nu ; Zu-SU (MAD I) for Zu-zia. 

Other possible attestation of confusion of signs similar in 
form may be found in the case of BAR and MAS, BAR and ME, SUL and 
DA, and IB and UR. The examples are not so clear and they cannot be 
checked on tablets which are at my disposal. Some of the examples 
taken from copies may be due to modern misreadings and miscopies. 


On the following pages is a list of Akkadian syllabic values 
as they were used in the Old Akkadian Period. Occasionally Suraerian 
values are listed, especially when thought important for the illus- 
tration of Akkadian syllabic usages. 

References to occurrences are not given, since they can easily 
be found in the Glossary , now published as MAD III. Only occur- 
rences which could not be listed in the Glossary — mostly geo- 
graphic and divine names without a clear Semitic etymology — are 
entered in the Syllabary with references. 

For all abbreviations consult MAD III. 

Regarding the arrangement of the list, the following points 
should be noted: 

The numerical order cf the signs is that of Wolfram von Soden, 


Das akkadische Syllabar (Roma, 19^8). . Signs not listed in von 
So den are entered in the Syllabary with additions of a, b, etc. 

Signs quoted after numbers appear in their New Assyrian forms. 

The signs are transliterated in two ways, in capitals and in 
lower case letters, e.g. BA ba, pa (under No, k) • The first gives 
the form in which my transliterations of Old Akkadian generally 
appear. The second gives the syllabic values in which these signs 
may function. Thus my transliteration of 3e-lx-ba-ni A I-ba-li~is 
can be expressed as Be-lr-ba-ni j I-pa-li-is by anybody who wishes 
to do so. 

Syllabic values ending in a stop or sibilant are noted as AG 
ag or AZ az, it being taken for granted that AG can stand for ag, 
ak, aq, and AZ for az, as, as,. 

The occurrences are listed in two columns: the first column 
quotes those from the Pre-Sargonic (noted as PSarg.) and Sargonic 
Periods (not otherwise noted); the second column those from Ur III. 



as This sign appears in the 
form of an oblique, 
vertical, or horizontal 
wedge in the spelling 
of As sir gi (or Essirgi?) 

\ -sir-gi, (EEC No. lij. 
and an unpubl. Lagash 
tablet in the Istanbul 

f -sir-gi » (Louvre AO 
. 112 J& rev., unpubl,) 
V -Sir-gi k (OIP XIV 
96, collated, and in 
several unpubl. texts 
from Adab) 

Always a horizontal wedge: 
Li -bur -ni -as 
Sa-lim-ni-as (cf. Sa-lim- 

ni-a-as in PBS Xl/l p. 

52, OB) 





DIL dil 

Oblique, vertical, or 
horizontal wedge in the 
spelling of Estar 
(older As tar?) as: 
^ -dar (MO B ii$ C xi; 

etc* ) 
T -dar (ETC 53 iij 202; 

etc* ) 
t» — dar (Deimel, Fara 

III 110) 
►--dar (LB 929:2, 
unpubl. ) 
Cf • also PN \ -pum* 

Y -pum, Is-pu-ura ( 3 SB?), 

and GN 4. -na-na-ak 

(MO C xv) 

Oblique, vertical, or 

horizontal wedge in 

Sum* U.RUM (Nikolski, 

Dok. I 61 iii; 76 iii; 

94 vi; 95 iii; 155 iv; 

311 iii, all PSarg. ; ITT 

I 14*8 i; 1449 ii) 

Apparently a "Winkelhaken," 
not an oblique wedge: 

Es, -dar (Nies, UDT 91 vi; 
131; etc.) 

Contrary to Ungnad, MAS p. 
13* and von Soden* AS No, 
1* the syllabic value rum 
is not attested in Ur III; 
instead of Li-bur-ni-rum 
read Li-bur-ni-as; Za-Ki- 

rum is OB; instead of 


NIM-Si-ku-rum -me in ITT 

IV p. 80, 7907* read pos- 

v »KI -i 
sibly NIM-Si-maJ-as -meJ 


Only in Dil-da-ba (TCL V 
6041 iii) compared with 
Di-il-da-ba (AJSL XXXIII 
240, OB; etc*) 




Hal-wa-^i-iCs ] (Iraq 
VII 66) 


Igi-feal-lum (Orient. XLVII 
455) = Igi-ha-lum (CT 
XXXII 20 ii+) 

3. «4 

MUG mug Tu-muq-su (perhaps Ur III) Hin-mug(-ga) (AnOr XIX 
Muk-da-an KI (BIN VIII UUi) No. k55) 












5. ^T 



mu-za-zu (Z^Z) 











iu ii 




Su-zu-bi (VZB) 





v KT 

Sa-su-m-urri (YQS IV 91, 

8. *-£fc 

BALA bala Bala-ga (HSS X) 


Gi-num-bala compared with 


DINGIR-bala compared vrith 
DIN T GIR-ba-la 

9. >^m 

GIR gir 
qir ? 


Gir-su KI 

Su?-gir-a-bi (MDP XIV 6 
rev. ii) 






dar Su-rau-tar (-DMO 



■12. *H>£ 




Ma-an~is ~tu-3u 




Ma-an-ki -be -li 
ga-an-num /kannura/ 

15. **%3 

KA ka 


pu x> 

Contrary to Ungnad, MAS 
p. % and von Soden, AS 
p. 32 j the syllabic 

value ka is not attested 

in Sargonicj Ka-za-lu 

only in late copies of 

Rxmus (PBS V 31* xviff.) f 

original texts have Ga- 

za-lu KI (MO). The only 

possibility in late 

Sargonic is Ka-za-bum 

(RA VIII 158 AO 5657j 

Fish, GST p. 182 No. 8) ' 

compared with the GN 

Kazabu of later date * 

bu KA-su-su compared 
with Pu-su-su (both 

KA-zi-a compared with Pu- 

ai-a (B 3 x §) 
KA-ki-ni-is (BGN) 
Cf. also below 

Only in Ka-zal-lu KI 
A-da-ka-al^u-[um]? (TKL) 

KA-ga-nura /bukannum/ 
Cf. also below 


h P± h 


, bi A-pii -sal"""* (Gelb, 
AJSL IV 70ff.) 

TJ-KA-KA (MAD I) compared 
with TJ-bi-bi (OIF "XIV 
U8 i) or U-pu-pu (TCL V 
6039 rev, iii, Ur III) 

U-KA-ma-tum (MAD I) com- 
pared with U-bi-mu Sa- 
turn (YOS IV 2, Ur III). 

Cf, also above 


P«H» X 3 






ZOR x zur x 

bum ir-e-^CA compared 

with ir-e-pura (R^B?) 
LUGAL-KA compared with 
LUGAL-pum (P) 

Zu-ga-gi^-ip (PSarg., 


Pu-KA-num compared with 
Pu-zu-num, Pu-zu-nu- 
um (PSN) 
KA-ba-lum /supalum/ 
Cf. also KA.LIM KI (RTC 
83; HSS X 191 iij ZA 
XLII Ul:37) with Zu- 
lum KI (MDP XIV 33 rev. 
i) and suluppum 

A-pi. -sal KI 

Za-an-na-KA compared with 

Za-an-na-bi (ZNB) 
/-KA-la-num compared with 

/^bi-la-nura (\°(p 
KA-la-LUM compared with 

Bu-la-LUM or Bx-la-LUM 

A-KA-da-ab /Abl-tab/ or 

Cf . also above 

KA-ur-ba-tu-um compared 
with Zu^ur-ba-ti KI 

Pu-4CA-num (PSN) 
Pu-KA-na-a (PSN) 
pu-KA-lum (PSL?) 
KA-ga-lum compared with 

Zu-ga-lum (SKL?) 
KA-ga-li compared with 

Zu-ga-lx, Zu-ga-li 


d KA-ur-mu (§RM, Gudea) 

Pu-KA-Es-dar (PZR) 
Pu-KA-ra (PZR?) 
Cf. also No. 87 




Gal-pum /Kalbum/ 
Sa-pum^ 1 (S. xii) 



P$ bu 



PI x ** 

pu-ze-num (B§N) 
URUOT aft.Pft.M (BSD?) 
Pu-la-lf (DP 137 iv, 
PSarg., BLL?) 



BA-, ba-- ba-.-u-la-ti 

Cf. under BA-., (below) 

Pu-au-nu-um (PSN) 

V V 

Pi -sa-^a-lum, Pi -sa~ka- 
li/lf (PSg, reading PtL 
SA-^a-lum, etc*, also 

E-te-AL-pi -'iDa-gan (P, 
reading E-te-AL-pu-lDa- 
gan is less plausible) 

Su-gu-ba 11 -num (SKB) 
Ba^-lu(l) -lu(l) (Legrain, 
TRU 301 rev.) compared 
with 3a-lu-lu (CT XXXII 
3U i'i) or Bu-lu-lu (CT 
XXXII 50 rev.) 

Ba ll" ba " t ' i (Barton, HLC 
III PI. 128, 290 rev.) 
compared with Ba-ba~ti 
(Legrain, TRU 176) or 

Bu-ba-ti (BIN V 106:ii) 

Ba ll" Sal " la ^ ur " sa S MAR.TU 
(Thureau-Dangin, SAKI 
p. 70 vi, Gudeaj Gelb, 




Ba -ti (BIN VIII p. 32) 
compared with Ba-ti 
and Bat-ti (ibid,) 

ba^-lu-^u-um and ba^- 



NAG nag 


Nak-stt R± (TMH V 122 5 RTC 
99; 136$ 176) 

Nak-su KI (TCL II 5U88; V 

567U iij etc.) 
DINGIR-nak-tum (NQD?,- AST 

III 10h6 seal) 
Su-nak-da (NQD?) 

Rf ri 

RU ? ru ? 

[ERI eri 

Ma~rx KI -a-rx-ik 

Sn-ba-rx-u (MAD I) ^a-bu-rx-tum 


sar-run-dam and sar-ru^- 
ti-su (late copies) 

Za-za-ru compared with 

Za-za-ru (§R§R) 

^a-ruj-ti (MDP II p. 

63 ii) 

S.i-lu-ga-ruu-ud (MO A ix) 

There is no evidence for the syllabic value eri in the 
Sarg. and Ur III Periods (proposed by Thureau-Dangin 
in RA XXXI 83i\)] 

Cf. also U-URU-a under No. 23c 

23a, ^fcftgT 



Only in Gu-URU+KAR?-ub- 
d UTU (KRB) 

23b. >£[&T 
URU+GU gur(u) 



Only in DINGIR-UEU+GU-ub 
(KR3) and tf-URU+GU^ 
(CT VII 27b rev, 11, 17) 



ru ^Ta-ru -de (MDP XI p. 3 


ru -tu-ni-ri (ibid, p. 9 
iv twice, Elamite) 

[s]ar-ru -uz-zu(m) 





(u)ru URU+A , U-URU+A-a , URU+A-a , U-URU-a 1 ^ in PSarg. , 
Sarg., and Ur III (Gelb, HS p. 3U n* 82). Of. also 
URU+A-a KI = URU+^ KI (Sollberger, Corpus des inscr, 
"roy. H presarg. de Lagas, Ent. 76 * Ent. 77). For 
URU+A ■« uru^ cf. now Falkenstein in 2A LII (1957) 70 
n* 2 



The sign GAL is often 
confused with the signs 
URU and URU+A 

The word for South is 
written IM.gIl (PBS VI 
35; ZA LI 52, both Ur 
III) or IM.Ug (passim) 

For GAL * u cf . now Falk 
stein in ZA LIT (1957) 

GAL-ba-a PA.TE.SI A-dam- 

dun (Legrain, TRU 2k; 

1075 277; Nikolski, 

Dok» II U83) compared 

with O-ba-a PA.TE.SI A- 
dam-dun (Legrain, TRU 
179; 381+5 ITT V 677Us 
^a-Gll-sa (AnOr VII 79$ 
Fish, MCS I 56) com- 
pared with aa-u-sa 
(Nikolski, Dok* II 316), 
and Ur-^a-OAL-sa (UST 
III 1351 ii5 Barton, 

HLC II PI. 60 iv) com- 

d v v 
pared with Ur- Sa-u-sa 

(CT X 28 ii 16). Cf. 


also Geme- &a-GAL(wr. 
U+URU)-sa (ETC 399 Ii, 
v) , Geme- 5a-G&L(wr. 
URU)-sa (ETC 1*00 ii, 
iii; ITT III 6SU3 i), 
and Geme- aa-GAL-sa 
103U rev. i; 1351 iij 
Uil5; Reisner, TUT 15U 
iv$ 158 x; etc,). Also 
132 ii, OB) 
GAMM lu-G^L-^m, SIIA. 
lu-ailHuift, UDU lu-G&L- 
urn (Orient. XXII 11, 
26, 38), regularly writ- 
ten with G&L, not URU 

2*. >^f 


Ir-e-pum (R^B?) 





25a. .Jtf 
IE 11 ir ll 

Only in ir^-ti-ab 

lr u -e-ib 

Ir -e-GJ&tf.UL 

27. *£f 

LA la 



29. *|gK 

MAQ ma& 


Sa-al-ma£, Sa-al-maj^, and 
Sal-mafc /Salm-afc/ 


■ TO tu 




pi na-tu 


■tu-uri -da 

G0Rg kur- 





ai-guro*-ru-um compared 

... GIS . . 

with zi-ku-ru-um 

Zi-gur g -da (SKR) 
Ba-si-in-GURg-ri-li (-UET 

III 1U10):. Meaning 

GURg-gu-LUM (FN, AO 11273, 



LT li 

LI e x ? 


LI-Iu~*il-dan LUGAL A-ga- 
de KI (AOF X 281) com- 
pared with E-lu-lu, 
king of Akkad. Very 
doubtful; cf, Gelb, AJSL 
LIU 38. If LI - e x is 
correct, then this value 
should be compared with 
LI = e(n) in' Sum, j cf. 
Poebel, 2A XXXVIII 81ff. 

Li -bur 

32/ >V 

PAS pai 



[Only in pa* -sis, to ^e 
read preferably as logo- 
gram PA(B).SIS] 

PAB-ti^um compared with 
ba-ti-um (BT°?) 

3iia. A-Sfl 
PAB+E pa^ 

PAB+S-Ti-bi-ra 10 - (ITT I 
p. 2, 1051; A 725) and 
PAB+S-Ti-bi( r) £-ra KI 
(A 7122, unpubl M Entemena, 
quoted in Poebel, AS XIV 
MJf.) = Bad-tibira 

PAB+E-u-e (AnOr XIX No. 
528) - d PAB-u-e (No. 530) 

35. ^ 


OT rau rau-sa-lum 


[I(A) 5 i(a) 5 


Cf. p. 21] 

36. ^ 

s/l sal 




A-pi,-sal KI 

Ki-sal-la KI 

Sal-mu-um (Met. 
86.11.13^ from 
Dr. Sollberger) 

Sal-la-AN (Barton, ELC II 

PI, 89 viii) 
A-pi. -sal , A-pi, -sal- 

la KI (Gelb, AJSL.LIII 

, 395 LV 71) 

Sal-la and compounds 

Da.-sal-la KI and Ki-sal- 

la (Gelb, AJSL LV 79, 

and with correction 

Schneider, Le Museon 

LXII 2ff.) 

Only in Ma-at-qa 

(Thureau-Dangin, SAKI p. 

176 No. XVIII), if not to 

be read as ma-«at NIJT 

39. $%£ 

GIL gil 


En-gil-sa (MO) 
Cf . also [....]. -ma-gil 
(HSS X 33 vi) 

in. &S- 

RU ru 

SUB sub 



On3y in Te-sup-se-la-afc 
(AnOr VII hhi9; Qelb, 
HS p. 111). However, 
if the name is Elamite, 
not Hurrian (cf. Sim- 
se-la-afc in ITT V 6787), 
the reading Te-ru-se- 
la-a& may be preferred 





be -if 

It-be -um 



Sa-at-be-DM}IR (§TP). 











Only in As-sir-gi, (cf. 
No. 1) 

d As-sir-gi^ (BE III 13, 


v * 


v ^ VT 

Perhaps in A-sur at 

v in- 

Gasur, if not A -sir 



*— *& 

kul U.KIL {HSS III kO v, 

BSarg** a profession) 


Kul-ab. (cf. No. 128a 
and Falkenstein, 
Topographie von Urak p. 

MAS mas 

d.KUL (Ward, CPM No. 6ls 
Delaporte, CCL I T 177; 













Da-a-ti (D^D) 







I-ti-ib- (T' ? B) 

^A^nas-ti-ak (MO) 

BAR bar a-bar^-ti 
(oldJL_ ) U-bar-txun 


v , kt 












Ki-mas KI (Nikolski, Dok. 
II 83) 


Ki-mas^ (TMK n.F. l/ll 
262 rev.) 






53. >*W 

ni£L-lugal^-a KI (ITT I 
1100) compared with 
DaL-lugal-4i-<a (Chiera, 
STA 10 iii, v, Ur in) 

Cf • also No. 2i* for IM.U- 

Cf • the month name U-. 
Bf aU .Ktf with UB. 
Bf^ U .KU (e.g., UET III 
p. 278), etc. 

$k. HHJfc 



BIRk bir. 





Bir^-^a-siun and Bir^- 

fca-sum (FR 5 j3) 
li-is-bir^ (late copies) 
PAB+E-Ti-bi(r)^-ra KI 

(Entemena, cf • No. 3Ua) 
E-birK-mu-bi compared 

with E-bi~ir-*mi-b£ ( D FR) 

E-blrv-fflu-fcf PA.TE.SI Su~ 
sim* 1 (MDP XIV No, 76 and 
p. 5) compared with E- 
bir^-ntu-bx GiR.NITAg ma- 
ti NIM KI (MDP XT/ p. 6) 

Sollberger suggests, in 
JCS X (1956) 2h 9 the 
reading Su-sln -na 
(Thureau-Dangin, SAKI p. 
18 vi 10, Eannatum) for 


Bir^-^a-su-um compared 
with Bi-ir-^a-suml 

Za-rx-gum PA.TE.SI Su~ 
sim (Qppenheim, CCTE 
pp. 70 and 267) com- 
pared with Za-r£-iq PA, 




















Zi-im-tum ( 3 ^SM) 







zd-im-tum (§MD) 










is-bi-gi (SPK) 



id-gi-e- (copy) 







• ■ . 





tab-ri -«m 





tal-li-ik and it-tal-ku 

ga-si-ba-tal (Gelb, H5 p. 

Tal-fca-tim KI (UET I 27U 


ii, copy) 
Tal-mu-us 1 ^. (RA IX 3 1* 

tal-gu-ut (LQT) 

TalHraus KI (Mies, UDT 92) 

rev. iii, copy) 

63* >WF 

NUN nun 




As-nun and As-nun-na 

63a. >mW 

T&1 tur Only in tur?-ra~tim (CM) 

Tum-tur* 1 (Nikolski, Dok. 
II I6I3 etc.) 

kao-turj -ru 

GIS t u * 



na-kab f cf. No. 137a 

A-kapnse-en (ITT III 6ShS 
ii) and A-kap(w. DA)- 
se-in (AnOr XII 278 v) 

kab-la-tum (BIN V 55) 

6k. Hg 

KAB kab 
(old ^Mf ) 



fcub bupHsa-sum 
(oldpb^) auP^i™ KI (HSS X 92) 

afe.DU rig ? In SAG.HUB.DU = SA(G).RIG of the PSarg. votive in- 
scriptions (cf. above p. 2) and in the spellings of 
the GN URU.SAG.PA.gUB.DU (passim in Sarg. and Ur 
III). Cf. also the rare spellings of URU.SAG.SAL. 
QUB.DU 10 - (TMH V "1*0 ii; 6U i; 110 rev.; 211 ii, 
PSarg.?); URU.SAG.PA.gUB KI (RTC 113 rev., Sarg.); 
SAL.aUB.DU Kl (Nikolski, Dok. II 197, Ur III) 3 URU. 
SAG.Pi.SAL.adB KI (Reisner, TUT 200 rev., ur III); 
UTtU.SAG.SAL^UB* 1 (ITT V 6799, Ur III). Cf. also the 
discussion of the GN by M. Lambert in RA XLVII 11-15 

67. >l 
GAD qid 

Only in NA.GAD(A) • naqidum in PSarg., Sarg., and Ur III 

67a^Rp5CT(Hfc 180) 

AKKIL A syllabic value required in: 

Da^AKKIL (RTC 91 rev. ii; 122; 
A 696 twice) 

AKKIL-ae-a (RTC. 21*9 rev. i) 

GAN E-AKKIL-tim (MAD I 122) 
Kun-AKKIL (ITT I li*68; HSS X 















mun-tum (MT?) 
la-mun?(wr. TIM) -dam 

(MDP XIV 90: h) 

mxui-tum (MT?) 






Ma-ag-ra-tum KI (GKN) 


-da-^ak-la-ak-sum (TKL) 








A-4cap-^e-en (ITT III 6$k$ 







lis 77) 

Sur-gu-la KI (MDP XIV 13) 

Ki-sur-ra KI 


SUg su& or suk 

Only in ^e-la^at-Sufc-nir 
(AnOr XIX Ho. 52) com- 
pared with wIN-Suk-nir 
(TA 1931, 326, OB, .and 
Bab. IV 2^8 PI. V, OB) 

.76. "W 

SA sa, 




Sa-al-*na& /Sato-afc/ 
Ma-sa-tura KI (MSD?) 

Bf-ea-afc- (FSg) 

KI / 

Sa-bu-um and sa-bi-tum 

GAN- gan 



v ' KI 

Mas -gan 

Sa-gan-UR.SAG (HSS X) 

Mas -gan 

Kife kar(a) i-lx-kara-bi /ill-karabl/ 


) or I-li-kar-b£ /ill- 

Su-kar-ri (HSS X) 
Cf. also KR? in MAD III 


Kar(a)-fear KI (cf. Gelb, 
HS p # 57) 


Gu-la (Beimel, Fara II 1 
ix, PSarg.) 
-^u-la (RTC 98) 
Gu-da^-sum KI (HSS X) 

- d Gu-la (Orient. XLVII 
Ul rev.) 


Gtj.DUg.A KI 






DUR dur 

Dur-Ib-la KI (Nikolski, 

Dur-Ib-la KI (A 3206; U327) 

Dok. I 10) 

*1.OTS- compared 


4.DUR 5 ( 3 BR?) 






V * 







Lil lal 


RUL? nil?, run?, rura x ? 


i-la(l)-lum and I-la-lum 
(both in RA IX £6) 

From comparison of Su~ 
Dur-ul (TMH n.F. i/ll 
2U) =* Su-Tu-l£l (seal 
16* on PI. 88) , it is 
possible to assume that 
iAl, if copied correctly, 
has the value rul (or 
run, rum ) * 





Bar-ba-^a (MAD I) 


Est -dar 
Dar-ti-bu (B 3 -B?) 





Ss, -dar 

Sa-darnsia-at (RA IX PI. I 
opp. p. 1) 


(AnOr XIX Mb. £l) 
compared with JHIN-Te- 
ra-ba-an (TA 1931, 

GUR gur gur-da-b[ u ] ? 
It-gur-da KI 

kur Zi-gur-mu-bi 

qtir i-lum-gur-ad 


U-gur and ft-gur 
Qur-ra-tum (QRD) 




v e 




[u]?-si-si-ra (copy) 

si-turn (S^T) 
na-ei (N'S) 

2-si-in and other spel- 
lings (Gelb, AJSL LV 78) 

A-ri-si-en (RA IX PI. I 

opp. p. 1) 
Si-en-nam (PDTI 7°) 



s \ 



Su, -ru-uS-GI 

* v 

a-ki-is-sui -ni-si-im 


Su. Hiia-fee-Ia 

su. -a 

SI J, 


Only in i± -sii (Nikolski, 

Only in Li -si. 

Dok* II 21 rev.) # Cf. 

(Schneider, AnOr XIX 

MSL IV p # 6 

Mo. 261) 

bi -si, -it-ma (P§T.» copy) 



SA(G) sa 

ZUR x sur x 

Sag-gu-b£ (MDP XIV 6 iv) 

compared -with Sa-gu-bi 

(UET III 1256, Ur HI) 
Sag-gul-lum compared with 

§a-gul-lum (SKL) 
Ur-sa( g) -num/num 

Cf . also SAG # EIG 7 = 

t-lum-SAG-ir /-sa'ir?/ 

(EK IV PI. XL, PSarg.) 
In AMA-Ga-SAG (PM) and 

Cf. also Nos. 15 and 17? 

Sa(g)-ti-um compared with 
Sa-ti-um; there is no 
reason to read Res-ti- 
um with Pinches, BT3C 
pp» 22f., and von Soden, 
AS p. 1|3 

sa x -rig 7 and SAG.DU- 

j. •pnr 






it -ma 



M^-gan . 

ma-gi» -lum 


Ma~at-ga and Ma-at-ga J 

(Thureau-Dangin, SAKI 

p. 260, Gudea) 


88a. ^TT^ 

tiz uz Pu-ma-uz (MAD I) 

#£-ne~nu^us ( D ,ZN) 

89. ^rm 

DIR dir 

tir dir-ku-li 

90. t= 

TAB tab tab -ri -urn 


Written with horizontal 
or oblique wedges: 
Ak-fc^ KI (MO II B xv, 

Ak-^ KI (Frankfort, 

Cyl. Seals PI. Xllb, 

PSarg. ) 

£.SAG (TMH V 179:2, 

PSarg. ) 
^.SAG (l5A-:3, PSarg.) 

na-ar-f tab 1 -turn 


£k~tab KI 

Tab-lu-uz (TCL V 6039 Iv) 

Written with horizontal 
or oblique wedges: 
^ -ba-da-ra-afe (AnOr 

vii ko-.h; 53:21) 
^ -ba-an-da-ra-a& 

(Orient. XLVII 36:10; 
AnOr VII ltlu5) 
Cf # also Da-ba-da-ra-afc 
(A 591*7), TAB.BA-pa-da- 
ra-afc (YOS X 26:32), 
and the discussion by 
Hallo in 30 WI 231 



dub /dab TAB-si-^ga (5M) com- 
pared xrilth DUB-si-ga 
Cf. also Jv T os-. 101 and 201 









L A-bi-ap-suirv 


U-zur-fbal-su(m) /u§ur- 




ab-ni (BN* > 



Ki4s KI 

3RI 9 . iri ? 

^s-me-lum (§?P, ) 

Be-lf-da-ab /feell-tab/ 

Ki-es* x 

Es-nun KI (RSO IX U72) 

es-tum (° ST). Doubtful 


j^e-iriq-gal (cf, Falken- 
stein, Topographie von 
Uruk p. 31). Cf. No. 259 
Cf. also AB-gal 

ri r 

gal in Sum. (FaXken- 
stein, loc. cit.) 


MUL mul 



UG ug 

Is-bu-uk (3PK) 
js-ru-utk] (copy) 


Da-su-uk (De Genouillac, 
TD 83:5) 





LV 72) 


(Gelb, AJSL 

98. HS 

URUDU da c 

A-bi-URUDU compared with 
A-bi-da (TMH V p. U, 

Lugal-URUDU-ba-an (Jean, SA 
LXVI iii; BRM III 109; 
Oberhuber, SAKD 63) com- 
pared with Lugal-Da-ba-an 
(Oppenheim, CCTE p. 19*f). 
Cf. also No. 101 

ioo # ££?TT 

UM um 





DUB dub 

tub dub-ga-ti 
tub Is-dup- 
dub/dab GUR.DUB compared 
with gur-da-I"bu/bil 
(Sarg.) and gu-ur-du- 
up-pi (TCL XI 161 
passim, Larsa) 
Ur- d DUB-an (CT XXXII 8 ii, 


DUB-ru-um compared with 

Da-ab-ru-um (Gelb, AJSL 

LV 77) 

Instead of Lugal-DUB-ba-an 
read Lugal-URUDU-ba-an 
and see above No. 98 
(proposed by Sollberger) 

PSarg.) compared with KA- 
Da-ba-an, Sarg. , and Su- 
^Da-ba-an, OB, etc. 
(cf. DBN?) 
DUB-si-ga compared with 

TAB-si-ga (FM) 

A ' * ' KT 

For later periods cf ♦ Ak-DUB-bi-tum with Ak-TAB 

(Poebel, JAOS LVII 360, 362); Dil-DUB-ba (RLA I 

167, Larsa) with Dil-da-ba KI (TCL V 6041 iii, Ur 

III); DUB-di-e, var. of dabdu (TCL III p. 23 n. 7) 

Cf. also Nos. 90 and 201 

102. S^ff 

TA ta Only in Ta-ta (EM; MAD I) i-ta-ti-in 
Me-ta-la (Kish 1930, 139) na-ap-ta-an 

li-il-gu-ta (LQT) 


%i i-ba-ta-ar (PfR) 









Written vdth 5. horizontal 

or oblique wedges: 

I-pi-i-lum (NB^) 

I-bi-ura (DP 120 iii 4, 

PSarg. ) 

STJ.I (HSS X 222 iii; ETC 

95 rev.) 

Written with 6 vertical 

or oblique wedges: 


650; YOS I 11 ii; ITT Il/2 

3050 obv. and rev,) 






Ti-sa-an-da-^e compared 
with Ti-sa-an-da-fei 
(Gelb, HS p. 112) 






Ma-gan KI 

Ma-gan KI 

Mas -gan- (MAD I) 
^a-gan-UR.SAG (EK IV PI. 
XLIII No. 3 i, PSarg.) 




TUR tur 


ZS ze 



108. ^^ 

AD ad 

-ga-sa-ad (KSD) 


nsia-^ad (M*D) 

ga-ga-ad .(QQD) 



with B&D-Za-zi 
in HSS X) 




a— ze-^a-Htae 




JP^ — 




Ze-e-ze (Contenau, CHEU 


U-da-^ui-ze-na^at /Uddad- 
zinat/ from /*Uddad- 
sinat/, unpub* NBG Ur 
III text, from Hallo 

ze-ifc-ru-^ura. Doubtful 




LUGAL sar 

Tu-da-LUGAL-li^bx-is com- 
pared with Tu-da-sar-li- 
bf-is. Connection sure, 
meaning doubtful 

A-bu^unwni-LUGAL compared 
with A^pum-i-sar /Abum- 

ii3- ^j 

SIR fair 


Ma-ma-&ir /6fan-ma&Lr/ 


Da-«agH3ia-Jp.r-se (Legrain, 
TRU 286 rev. 2, 
ununders tandable) 

IR ? 

ir ? 

Only in EZSN-ra-gar-ad 
(oldt£J? ) /irra-qarrad?/ (OIP 
XIV 71* ii, PSarg.) 


TOg ug^ 

Bu-da^uk^-ki (HSS X 23) 

> TTT 

or Bu-da~UG, 


*U)$-gL k (CM) 

ttru-na-ug^-ga (PBS XV 81 
and BE I 113, NS.) 

Ur-Mo-ku-ra (CT VII 3.U, 
181*09 rev. 9, PSarg.) 
collared with uk (LtJ. 
SESSIG)-ku-ra (Shileiko, 
Sum. Vot. Inscr. p. 11, 

DN written ^in-din-^ig^- 
ga in Ur III is written 
^in-din-EZW+AN-ga in 
PSarg. (Jestin, TSS 629 
ij Deimel, Fara II 6 ii$ 
BE I 95) 

Cf. also EZEN+M-zi-^um (DP 
2 i, twice, PSarg.) 

BSD bad B^t-ti (BIN VIII p. 32) 

compared with Ba-ti and 
» Ba5-ti (ibid.) 

Ma-ru^g^-turn (UIT III 

Ur-Uk^-ku-ra (Pinches, AT 
78; YOS IV 21*8$ other 
examples in SL 152 , 32) 

(Schneider, AnOr XIX 
No. 1*88) 

Umnai -da-bat 


SUM sum 

I-ti-sum compared with 

'A-ra-sum compared with 


Ma-sum compared with Ma- 
Ga-ra-sum (KRS) 




Biiv-fca-sum compared with 
Birn-ba-su-um (PB=V §) 

Mu-lu-sum compared with 

Si-ku-sum /Sigusum/ 



The value sum for SUM fits 

well the derivation of 

the Sumerian word for 

"onion* 1 from Semitic 

sum, root T^M 

Only in Sum, GifUSE.GA 
(SL II hhk, li3) 


K&S ras or e$L Logogram GA.RAS 
or RAS.GA 

Ga-RAS KI (ITT V 8222) 




Genouillac, TD $h rev* i) 

117. & 
G&BA gaba 


DUg du(fc) 

Mu-ur-di(n)-GABA (CT 
XXXII 36 ii) and Mu^ur- 
ti-GABA (Bethany College 
No. 1:2) compared with 
Mu-ur-ti-ga-ba (Nikolski, 
Dok. II 1*76 i) 

Sa-ar-GABA (RTC 2U2 ii) 


Kur-bi-la-ga(b)-ta (AnOr 
I 175, translit. only). 

u, -dufc-fcu-um compared 

with u-tu-fcu-um ( * T£?) 
M.TAB-duJHa^™ and BA. 

TAB-du^-urn (BTBTg?) 


ir^bi-dug-um (MAD I) 


Bf hi 

Pi c 

zi-gii -dub^u-^am (ZGDg?) 
in-du&-su^um, etc. 
( ^MTgS) 

GtJ.DUg.A 10 - 

Duo-dUft-lf compared 
vith Du-du-ul KI (Gelb, 
AJSL LV 7lif *) 
Dug-du g -li x KI j cf. No. 

TOG imi-du 8 ^um (MD?) 





Da)j-^ji-^e-en (Lau, OBTR 

Da&-sa-tal (Gelb, HS p. 

an-da&-sum /anta&sura/ 









BIL bil 

I-bi- (NB^) 



-mu-bL Doubtful 

^i-bil (RTC 111 rev. iii, 
PSarg.) « SlL.GI (HSS 
X 160 iii) ~ d Gibil 

I-bi- (RB^) 


U-bi KI (BE III "59; 100; 
104; etc.) 

Bi-sa-afc- (PSg) 

^IL.GI (TCL V 6053 ii) 
^a-bil-sag (ibid.) 

pil Bil-zum (PIS) 







Dun-ne-nu-um (PSarg. ) 
Gi-ne-ku (TMH V ?1 iii 

10, PSarg.) = Gi-ni- 

ku (39 vi 8) 
Only in ^Li -si, 

(Nikolski* Dok. II 21 

rev.). Cf. MSL IV p. 6 

e-de-sura-ma (\DS) 

is -de 

Ki-de KI 

I-ti-ne-a /Iddin-Ea/ 
ne-gi-bu-um (NGB? ) 
ne-ba-&u-um ( 3 Bg?) 

Only in l£ -si. 

(Schneider, AnOr XIX 
No. 261) 

Since Du^-dUn-NET occurs 
with NM » Slamites 
(Gelb, AJSL LV 7U), 
contrary to Gelb, loc. 
cit. , it should be com- 
pared not with Tu-tu- 
ub KI , but with Du Q -du Q - 
if** 8 8 

Gar-de-de KI (RA XIX kh, 
105i;3) compared with 
Gar-de-de KI (ITT IV p . 83, 



Na-ru -de (MDP XI p. 
3 i, ii) 

iXM lam Only in Sumerian 

A-b^-zi-im-de compared 
with A-bi-si-im-ti 
C 6 SM) 

123. winr 

SRfM rim si-ga(r)-dLm (copy) 


Wa-at?-rum (BE I PI. VI 
ii). This reading is 
more plausible than 
Bir?-rum of von Soden, 
AS p. U9 

AHOur-rum (BE I PI. VII 

Ku-ba-rum (ITT IV p. 37, 
7318) compared with Gu- 
ba-ru^um (KBR) 

Su-Bf.Rl^ 1 (ITT II 69S; > 
890$ 917; etc.) and yu- 
RU.BI KI (Chiera, STA 10 
x 27, 33) 

GIS.TIR gan gu-ku-bu-Bf. 
RU-ma-kam (DP i*li6 rev. 
vi, PSarg.); Qu-ku-bu- 
Bf.RIT KI ' (Speleers, 
RIAA Ul i, PSarg. $ ITT 
V 9Wa; 9258; etc.) 
ZAG7-bur-Bf.RU, cf. No. 185 
DAMT? dam x ? Bf.RU-dam (R xxiii, xxv; 
cf . also MAD III 110) 

i2iu ^^T 

Bfl bJLl wa-bxl- 

pil sa-bxl-tim (copy) da-bil-tum (TPL?) 

125a. ^S 

AZU zuk A-zu^-zu^ compared with 

A-zu-zu (both in TMH V 

p. lU, PSarg.); cf, also 

A-zu^-zu^ in Jestin, TSS 

p. 71, Fara 
PN A.ZtJ^ (Kish 1930, lUUa 

rev. ii) compared with 

PN A.ZU (passim) 
Cf. also Jacobsen, JNES 

II 117f . 


AG ag Iu^-u-sa-na-ag, cf. No. 


128a. KSI 

UNUG iri ^e-irx-gal (MDP VI PI. d Ne-iri-gal (passim) 

2 9 1 ii) 
Cf . also OTLJG - e-ri-ira 

(AS VII p. 20:153) and 

discussion under No. 259 





Kul-ab, ^ (DP 51* xi; U38 
iij Wil i; 1+73 v, all 
PSarg.). Against Orient. 
XXVIII 1*5, Kul-ab, KI , 

VT ^ 

not Kul-ab 


also in 

VAS XIV Ik x. Of, also 
GI§ Kul-ab, - GI§ Kul-ab 
at Para (SL 72, 26), 


v v KI 


.KI _ 


uri(m), INNIN,UNUG A 

INNIN.AB KI « Zabala(m) , 

and discussion in SL 72, 

26 and Falkenstein, 

Topographie von Uruk p. 


Kul-ab, ^ (RA IX 113 iii 
5 - X 99:12, copy, Utu- 

Cf . also under Sarg, 

129. P~=*-^ 

KUM kum 

at-ti-kum (NDN) 



ti^cum (TG?) 



Da-kum (DQQ) 


is -kun 



Kun-du-pum (QTP?) 




GAZ gazi A-gazHi 10 - (HSS X 198) 


Gas-bu-sa (KSP) 


GAZ+NIR nir x ? 

nir x (N> 3 R) 








Su^ur-tim KI (MDP XIV 

Zu-*ir-zu-ra (Jacobsen, 

p. 10 i) 

CTC 7:11) 




im-fcu-ur ( CM) 







li-il-gu-da (LQT) 

BSi -dar-il-su 


.£%? ^^ 

IL+Kife il x 

Se-il -fca (MM) I) 

Bi-il -sum (PIS) 


Sa-il -turn 

Il x -la-au (^LL) 





Du-ma-ga (DMQ) 


is-du-tu (SDD) 

-du-gul (DGL) 

gu-du-si-is (QDS) 


Du-gul-tum (TKL) 
Du-kil- d EN.ZU 
li-is -ba-al-ki-du 

li-il-ku-du (LQT) 





Mu-tum-DINGIR (YOS IX 2, 


PSarg.). Not clear 

Su-nun-tum (SNN) 

Nin-ma-tuffl (HSS III p. 28, 

Nin-jaa-a-tum (K° T) 




PSarg. ) 

im x -tu-ud (MDD) 

Im x -da-lik (MLK) 

im -bu-r[u]-ni-sui Hina and 

im -da-^afc-za-ma (M$j) 

Gur-ra-tum (QRD) 
Ga-ra-tum (QHD) 
DINGIR-naq-tura (NQD?) 





KUM ? kum ? 
x x 


Es-fca-ra (A 839) 


Ur-%ar-ru-gin (RA IX 56, 

translit. only) 
'Wr-ru-giUMn (FDTI 


Gas-bu-sai (KSP) 

Sa-ga-na-DU (unique) com- 
pared with Sa-ga-na-kum 


LA& lafe. Only in the logograms M^.LAIJ, , MUS.LAg^and 1.LA& 





is -turn 



Wa-gar-tum ( ^QR) 







Ba-aq-tum (PQD) 


mi-x-tum (iff?) 


fB ib Passim in Sum. 

Tu(m)-ba-al KI (CT XXXII 
20 iii) probably - Da- 
ba-al KI (DBL?) 

ir-ib-il-su, also ir-e- 
fb, I-ri-fb, ir-ri-^b 
(R' 3 B?) 

TUM-rf-um, if to be read 

Bar-ze-xb (Johns Hopkins 
F k9h, from L. Qppen- 

137a. w&; 
TUM turn 


Correction: instead of 

Na-kab-tum , read na- 

kab IDIGNA (ID u UD. 


a (in MAD I l63rev. 

viii) is ununderstandable. 

TUM + 2 small wedges at 

d LAMA-tum x (IMS) 
zi-ib-tum compared with 

zi-ib-tum (ZB?) 

138. Bw^ 



us -ba-la-ga-du 


139. fc^T 

v v 

IS is 





Instead of u-ra-is of von 
Soden, AS p. 52, read 
u-ra-is, since this verb 
occurs both as R 3 S and R D S] 


UiO. t=* 
BI bi 

Lu-lu-bi-im (HSS X) 

is^i-gi (SPK) 


Bi-il x -zum (PIS) 

iui. &*=^ v 

SIM sim Sim-bi-is-fcu-uk (MDP II 
pp, 58, 63, etc.) 


Ba-sim-e KI (Gelb, AJSL LV 73). 


Sim-se-la-afc (ITT V 6787) 

Cf. the discussion on p. 
210 No. 113 


bir ? 


In the writing SU.BAPPIR.A in Sarg. and Ur III 
texts, discussed by Gelb in HS p. 27 and Studi 
orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi Delia Vida 
p. 383. Cf. also name translit. as Su-sim-^a in ITT 
IV p. 75, 7808, Ur III 

til ul 

80L fcui 

The sign appears in the 

form GIS+GIS+GIS: 
Na-bf-Dl-raas compared with 


The sign appears in the 

, form GIS+GIS: 

ID Dur-*il (mOG IV 188 
rev.; RA XXX 120 No. 7) 

Su-Dur-ul (1MH n.F. i/ll 
2k) compared with Su- 
TU.lil (seal l6*on PI. 
88 belonging to the 
same tablet) , discussed 
under No. 82 

ir-fcul-la compared with 
ir-fcu-la (U 363 and 365, 
and Falkenstein, NSGU I 
p. 37 n. 3) 

HiS. & 
GAG kag 

DU du 

Me-ir-tu-gag-ga (HSS X 
200) compared with Me- 
ir-t<u>-ga-ga (HSS X 
187 ii) 


Gag-gu-la-tuirt (CT XXXII 

19 iv) 
Gak-*ni KI (Langdon, TAD 67) 

LUGAL-ku-du-ri (UET I 96 
UET IH hS 9 seal) 












iu ? 












-a-ba-la-afe (Plfl) 

Ia-ar-rau-ti ( copy) 
be-lf-ia-a (CM) 
be-el-ti-ia-a (CM) 
Li-bu-us-ia-^a-um or li- 

bu-us -ni «a~um 
^a-ar-zi-na (MDP XI p. 

3 ii 3) 
Ia-ar-la-ga-an (YOS I 

^a-ia (ITT I 1288 rev.). 

For the reading cf . 

Jacobsen, JCS VII 38 

n. 17 

ZAL zal 

i-na-ze-ir (N§R) 

Ia-ab-ra-at (Gelb, HS p. 

Ia-a-da-az (ibid, p. 10 5) 
Ia-an-bi-i-lum (NB D ,) 
Ia^a-um compared with I- 

Ia-an^bu-H (NPL) 

Ia-anEiau-tum (MVT) 

* v KI 

Ia-a-mi-is (Orient. V 

Ia-a-ma-ti-um (A 29365) 
Ia-ab-ru KI (Gelb, AJSL IV 

^a-ia (Schneider, AnOr 

XIX No. 188) 

Iu -*i-sa-na-^ag and Iu - 
u-sa (Gelb in Studi 
orientalistici in onore 
di Giorgio Levi Delia 
Vida p. 388). Instead 
of Iu , the reading la 
is also possible 

Only in Ka-zal-lu KI 






i-si-ir ( 3 „SR) 






5-a-se -ir-l)a-^a^an 


(> 6 SR) 

s e -ir-s e -ir-ru^um 



B \ 


Regularly in Za-ba, -bat 
and A-ba^ , also Da- 
ba, -la (DBL?) 



Ma-ga-an KI (Gelb, AJSL L? 




PN Dun-ga-a^ad (Nesbit, 

SRD 17 rev.; A 2869) 
PN I-tum-Ga-ga ( *»D) 


AMA ama 

Sum. Ur- Igi-(a)ma-se 
(DP 191 ii, PSarg.) 
compared with Lu- Igi- 
raa-se (ITT II 14203, Ur 
III), etc. 

Am(a)-aHium (Thureau- 
Dangin, SAKI p. 68 v 
28, Gudea) 



ANSE DU(N).UR, cf. No. 271 
SAR.IJR (Thureau-Dangin, 
SAKI pp. 267f., Gudea) 

1#. Sff=f 

DAG dag 



dag-ru-s[a]?-am (GRS?) 
dak-ti (KT D ? ) 

-dak-la-ku (TKL) 


153- #= 





A-pa-ar* (ITT I 1099) 
-pa-lik (OIP LVIII 291 
No, 7, PBarg., PLQ?) 



Pa-na-na (Jaeobsen 
P. 16) 

Pa-sim-e (Gelb,. AJSL 

LV 73) 

PA.glfe.DU rig^. See No. bk 

SAB sab GI MA.SAB (BIN VIII 26l:3; Sab-ni-^ul-gi (RA IX 63 
UET III p. 127, Ur III) AM Uj, SPN?) 

156. $=% 
IZ ia 

035 gis 

I-ba-Oi-is (PIS) 


Ni«-i§-ru-um« Doubtful 

Na-an-gis-li-is-ma (late copy) 



kis x 

nfi/nas ? GIS-be KI (passim in HSS 

X) compared with ^HNa- 
as-be in the later Nazi 
texts (Lacheman, BASOR 
LXXVIII 22 and LXXXI 10) 

Ag-giz compared with A- 
gi-ze KI (AJSL LV 68fJ. 

Gis-ga-ti coinpared with 
Ki-is-ga-ti KI (KSKT?) 

G3S.BIL bil u-b£l 

A-b£l-(y 6 L) 
TIR Ba-bilKI (ITT V 9258 
i; 9hhl) compared with 
TIR Ba-bil-la (Nies, 
UDT 58 v) 

Ur-bll-lura K3C (De 
Genouillac, TD 86 rev.) 


TIR Ba-bxl-la (CT VII Hi 
i), GIS. TIR Ba-bil-la 
(CT IX 39 ii), etc. 

Ur-'W-bil-sag (DP 113 

rev. ii, PSarg.) 
This value attested 

already at Fara (cf. 

Jacobsen, AS XI 188) 


In some forms GIS.BIL in- 
stead of GIS.BIL occurs 
(cf . Gelb in AJSL LIII 
180, and in Journal of 
the Institute of Asian 
Studies I [1955] 25-28) 

gAr.bIl (Barton, HLC II 
PI. 68 i, iii) - GAR. 
b!l (ii, iii) 

159a. rffc 

GUD gu, 


gu( d) -2a-r£-ku?! 


Gu(d)-bu-tum (AnOr I 177 
rev. , translit. only) 

Gu(d)-ku-la (UET III lk$2 
rev ,) 

gu(d)-ku-ru (KKR) 

Gu(d)-ku-za-num (GGZ?) 




. al 



ma-a-al-tum (N 3 

7 L) 


el x ? 

i-be-AL (copy) 

E-te-AL-pi -iDa-gan 














mar-za-tum (RSN?) 

v XT 


Mar-ru-ut KI (MAD. I) 


163. **f 

E e 



ga-rai-e (KM') 


16U, tf?* 

DUG dug 

mu-duk (JRAS 1932 p. 

296:1*1, ununderstand- 

able; read perhaps 

mu-bi?, NB^?) 
dug-ti-ir (MDP-H p. 3 

iii twice, Elamite) 
se^-dug (ibid. p. 9 iii) 

165. *W 

UN un 



su-gu-un (SKN) 


166. ^T 

Lfl lfl 

En-lil-kum 10 - (Iraq VII 



d Nin-l£l 


Za-lil-tum (§LL) 

-Jba-lfl (PLL?) 

167. ^E 

[SID sid 

Against Ga-sid-da-du of 

LAG lag 
(old te ) 

iO ag lk-tab J 



von Soden, AS p. 5>8» and 
others, read Ga-ra-da- 
du in accordance with 
Gelb, HS pp. 101f.] 

Kur-bi-lag compared with 
Kur-bi-la-ag (KRB) 

£k-tab KI (JAGS LVII 3$9ff.) 
Ig-giz compared with A- 

gi-ze* (AJSL LV 68f.). 





Ur-Bil-g£(n)-mes (RTC 18 
rev. ii, PSarg.) 

[Against u-*nis-sum of 
Ungnad, MAS pp. 11 and 
37, read u-uml-sura (col- 

J3il-ga-*aes (Schneider, 
AnOr XIX No. 162) 

169. *wt. 

ft'" u 

BA 6? 

ba 6 ? 

BU ? bu ? 



U-da-tum ( ^D) 

ga-U-ru (MDP XIV 6 v), 
according to von Soden, 
AS p. 59. Doubtful 

tJ-U (BE I 87 is BIN VIII 
88) compared with Bu- 
bu, Pu-pu (cf . von Soden, 

AS p. 59) . Doubtful 


gA.U.DA compared 

with m W.?i$.M 

(8BD?, PSarg.) 

Instead of sam-si of von 
Soden, AS p. 59, read 
u-si (^SS) 


Ba 6 -sim-e (Orient. XXIII 

2117). Doubtful 

Instead of ^ul-gi- samnsi 
(RT XIX 58 lfo. 330) read 
perhaps ^ul-gi-HJTUl- 

170. tfn*'- 

GA ga 






ga-ga^ar-tum (KKR) 


IL £l 




172. tfn* 

LUg lufc 


Me-lu&-& a 

Ba-lufc- compared with 
Ba-lu-ufc- (PLg) 

-ba-l£k (Pig) 


Ur-^a-lib (RA IX 59 SA 
72 rev.) 

173. *3W 

DAN dan 



Dan-ki (CT XXI 1) 
d Pa-dan (PDN t PSarg. ) 


KAL kal 

Only in kal-la-tim (CM) 
Possibly in URU-kal-bx KI 

(TMH V 129) 
AHKiur-kal-la (MDP HV 

U3). Cf. under ur III 

I-sar-Ba-dan, etc. (PDN) 

d-na-^ip-dan (TCL V 6039 
rev. iii 6) 

ir-ra-na-DAN compared 

with ir-ra-na-da (N°D) 
Da(n) -ari- 
-da(n) -an-na-at 

A-mur-kal-la (UST III 
1351 i) compared with 
^ES.KI-kal-la (UET III 
1133), and other PM's 
with -kal-la, all Sum. , 
in Orient. XXIV p. 55 



Of the various values of 
this sign proposed in 
AJ3L LIII 181 (cf. also 
Albright, 3AS0R LXXVII 
225 Nougayrol, RA XLII 
8f.) von Soden, AS p. 60) 
only the value ^a (from 

D i-ba-2a (Ur III) compared 
with °l-ba-zura (Sarg.) 

fca) can be safely recon- 
structed for Sarg. : 
na-^a-as, root NljS 
da-la- ^a-mu, root I4JM 
3 a-ru-us, root -JJRS 
La-^a-ra-ab, root JJRB 
In other cases the root is 
not sure: 

* KT 

Za-ar-^a-num compared 
with later GN Zar&anum 

D a-wa-a-ti compared with 
later awatum 


E.A - 
word from Sem, 

E.SIG. - °A.GAR^ 

- A-a at Bogazkby 
'I.DURk, if loan 

if loan 
word from Sem. gGR 

Cf ♦ also ba-'a-as-tum, a- 
ti- D a-al-li, da-as-bi- 
^a-al-li, &a-wa- D a-a in 
the Hurrian inscription 
published by Nougayrol 
in RA XLII 6 

Cf . also il-ga-°a and il- 
ga-a at Mari (RA XXXV 

E-a in I-ti-ne-a /iddin- 

Ea/ and Na-ranae-a 

E-lu-num (RA XIX 192 No. 

li) compared with IsS-lu- 

num (YOS IV 2^0) 


NIR nir 





^u-nir (Fara II 5 v;MDP 

XIV 51 rev. ii; 71 rev. 


I-ti-nir-ra /iddin-Irra/ 

Ki-nu-nir KI 

j3e-la-at-Su&-nir (AnOr 
XIX No. $2) compared 
with i3e-la-*at-Su&-ne- 
ir (A 2999 twice) 

176. *TCA 



Gxr x -gi. -lu w ( PSarg. ) , Sinsia-as-gij 


see discussion on p. 214 

Gi. -da-num compared with 

No. 317 

Ki-da-num (G* D) 

ki u 


qi u 

ug^-gi^ (CM) 

-na-giv -id 

u-sa-am-gii -it (copy) 


178. ^^r 

RA ra 







ZUR^ sur Ga-zur * x (HSS X) 
Of. also No. 87 

Ga-2ur x KI (RTC 236) 


LU lu 

Lu-zu-zum compared with 

Lu-ba-na compared with 

Gir x -gi Zt -lu8 U KI (PSarg.), 

see discussion on p. 

21k No. 317 

Lu-sa-lim compared with 

Tab-lu-niz (TGL V 6039 iv) 

E-lu-da-an (AOF XVIII 
105b 5) 


En-rd-lu compared with 

En-ni-lu (» W) 

u-ga-lu (copy, K ^) 

SAR sar 

[MlJ imi 


The value mu in the name 
proposed by Jacobsen, 
AS XI p. 120 n. 308, is 
not attested in Sarg#] 


A-zi-SAR^a (Schneider, 
AnOr XIX Nos. 10 and 
35>1) compared with A- 
zi-mu-a by Jacobsen, 
Orient* n.s. XVI 39ltf. 


ZAG za(g) 

Za(g)?-fcur-rum (BIN II 2 
rev., PSarg.); reading 
according to von Soden, 
AS p. 62. Very doubtful 

ZAG-tum (BIN VIII J0l) # 
Doubtful. Perhaps a PN 

za(g)-mi-ri-tum compared 
with za-mi-ri-tum (MP 3 ) compared with (SgL) 

or Gu-za(g)- 



turn (Langdon, TAD 


186. ^& 

g£r gar 

Na-gar KI (RA XLII 6:18) 
compared with Na-ga- 
ar KI (TCL XXIH 57:11, 
Mari) and NAGAR KI (CT 
I lb 2, 1% lc 12) 


C-na-gar (MO). Doubtful 


Gar -turn (QRD) 







Ga-ei-id- /KSD/ 

-na-gi^-id (HQD) 




ra-a-pum (R D ^B) 



i y 






Only in I-de-de (HSS 


Only in In-de*-a (CT ■ I3jA) 
Gar-de-de KI (ITT IV 196k) 

li-ti-de (MDP XI p. 

9 iv, 

compared with Gar-de- 


de KI (RA XIX 1*U, 105Ii3) 

de-ga-li (ibid,) 











fca Da-pum (TVB) 






es ? 

na- D a-as 

Da-as-wa-tum (SM D ) ) 

AS-nun-na KI (BIN VIII 
68:15, PSarg. , unique). 
Cf * Ur III 



i£s-ku-da-num compared 

with As-ku-da-num 
ga-as-fea-me-ir (gSg) 

Na-3p.-AS-[t]uro compared 
with Na-fci-is-tum. But 
cf . also No. 290 under es 

Occurring between Sarg* 

^ KI A v 

Is-nun and OB Es- 
nun(-na) KI , the Ur III 


spelling i£SHaun(-na) 
may express Es - 
nun(-na) . Cf. the 
occurrences in Jacobsen, 
AS VI Iff* 


MA. ma 



19k. H*~ 
GAL gal 

kal A-da-gal 

gal-pum (KLB) 





BAR bar 

Bar-ze-ib (Johns Hopkins 
F h9k, from L* OppenheinO 


Gfe gug 


kug guk-ru^um (KKR) 


KIR gir me-kir- 

kir kir-ru 


qir kir-bl-su 
PIS pis 



Gir-gi, -lu"~, see p. 21*f 


Kir-ba-tal (Gelb v HS p. 






LUGAL-namnmir (translit. 

Ba-*a-fldr-«i-«i (IOS IV 













Be-lf^da-bum (T D ? B) 

Lu-lu-bum 10 - (AJSL LIII 



Za-bum (Nikolski, Dok. 

II 1; 9; U6j etc.) 
Ka-za-bum (RA VIII 158 

AO 5657; Fish, CST p. 

182 No. 8) 

Dtfe dub/dal^ Dfe-rae compared with TAB- 
me (both HSS X) 
'ufa-mi (HSS X) 
DUB-bu-^um (HSS X) 
Cf . also Nos. 90 and 101 








SU su 








I-lu(l)-lu(l) compared 

with i-lu-lu (both in 

Lul-lu(l)-ub (ITT 11/2 p. 

33, k$96) 
ITI Ba-lu(l)-ttt (MAD I) 
ga-LTILHEaa, if interpreted 

as kalu-ma tt all w 
Cf. also pi-lu(l)-da 

(Thureau-Dangin, SAKI 

p. SO vi 26, Urukagina, 


NAR nar 

Ba .-lu(l)-lu(l) compared 
with Ba-lu-lu (AJSL 
Lin 38) 

Bu-lu(l)-la(l) (HSS IV Itf 
rev.), Pu-lu(l)-lu(l) 
(BIN V 1 rev.) compared 
with Bu-lu-lu (CT XXXII 
50 rev.) 

La-lu(l)-LUM (Reisner, 
TUT 216+) 

Cf. also Sum. u-lu(l)-si- 
e (Thureau-Dangin, SAKI 
p. 128 vii 2, Gudea) 

Na-nar compared with Na- 
na-ri (NNR?) 


SAG^ sa. 

In Swu. Na-ba-SAG^ (U 
2338) compared with Na- 
ba-DI (U 233M and Na- 
SAG^ (U 236!;) compared 
with Na-DI (U 23^5) . 
Cf. also in-si-SAG,. 
(UET III 32+) with in- 
si-sa(m) (passim) 

Cf. also No. 263a 





l.GAM (a container, passii 





Kur-ra (HSS X) 


Kur-sa-an (KRS?) 

Kur-sa-num (KRS?) 


Kur-ti- (QRD) 

gur x 

DN tf-kur (unpubl.) 



ar-KUR-nam (' RGN?) 

212 . & 
SE se 

Very rare 
Se-il x -&a (MAD I) 
f^-e-s e -ir-Da-ga-^an 




Se-il-wa-an"* 1 ' (MDP XIV 

p. 10 ii twice) 
Bi-se-in (ibid, i) 








Gi-bu-tum (Q'P) 







-bu-uz-ri (PZR) 
gu-zu-uz- (Q3S) 




Su 12 

Only in PSarg.: 
SifM-su(d) (CT V 3; 

XXXII 7f.) 
DuX-su(d) (CT V 2; 

XXXI lUo) 





C W-raus-da 

Has-da-num (CT VII 7 ii) 

Cf. also No. 290 


and Mus-da-*m-um (A 
U218 rev.) 

TalH«ius KI (Nies, I3DT 92) 
La-mus and La-mus-sa (L* M?) 

217- WW 
TIR tir 

Tir-ku(g) (HSS X 136+) 
compared with Tir-gu 
(U 2760+) 

Din-tir* x (AnOr I 88 viii; 
BIN V 277 ii) 

218. <M 
TE te 



(MDP XIV p. 20) 

Te-mi-tum (fM*) 

Te-ze-in- (Z'N?) 
-te-ni-is (=> C NS) 
-Te-ra-ba-an (OIP XLIII 

219. #W 

KAR kar - ( TIin-kar (MO A ix; B v) 

Kar-kar* 1 (ITT III/2 6013) 

Kar-da (Thureau-Dangin, 

SAKI p. 150 No. 22 ii 11) 

qar x 

^ar-ra-tum (QBD) 








U l* 

U^-bi^im* 1 

(BE I PI. 

u» -du^-^u-um compared with 

VII rev. ii twice) 

u-tu-&u^um (' Tft?) 

TAM tam tam-fci-e (MB* X ) 

dam? Tam-kum (DMQ). Doubtful 

\-gu-gu (Thureau-Dangin, 
SAKI p. 176 No. XVIII) 

Tam-li-su-na (ML*.) 

222. %*T 
■ft e 

e-da-su (DP 2 ii, PSarg.) 



ft-lu-Me-ir (RTC 127 rev. 

ft-ni-um' 85 I-ni-um (FM) 
e-ga-bi (QB* 7 ) 

^-a (Speleers, RIAA 97:1) 
Pu\gA-£-a (Nikolski, Dok. 

II 21, and passim) 
ft-lu-num (YOS IV 2l*0) 

compared with 3^-lu-num 

(RA XIX 192 No. k) 
e-ru-ba-tum compared with 







wa-ar-ki- i uia 







Za-*& (HSS X) 



wu-zu-is ( *J3\) 
Wu-zum-tum ( D ^SM) 





A-bi-A-pi-i& (BIN V 31 


rev, ) 


pi-ir-ti-su (HtM 



Su-la-pi (LB* ) 
i-ga-pi-u (copy, QB^) 

be 6 




§AG U 


Sa-gu-ba (Jestin, TSS 


p, 70+, Fara; MO) 


TtfG.sA.GA.Dtf (SG?) 

Sa-as-ru--Qiii KI (YOS IV 102) 



225, $&<l 

% u& Ba-lu-ufe- 

BuHlb-2a KI (Iraq VII 66) 
ZuHrnu-^b^^ 1 (ibid.) 

Su-ub-na-ri 10 - (CT I 11 

BuHib-zi-gar KI (CT XXXII 

19 iv) 

226, 2J 
BiR bir 

[Instead of Bar? -rum of 
von Soden, AS p. 70, 
read perhaps Wa-at?- 


AD.DA-na-bir compared 
with AD.DA-na-bi-ir 
and AD.M-na-wi-ir 
(N' 6 R) 

229. ^ 
gl fci -a-fci -a-hi 

Ba-&i-ir Nu-fci-DINGIR 


fee Ti-sa-an-da-^i compared 

with Ti-sa-an-da-be 
(Gelb, HS p. 112) * 

Sjfe sar [Instead of in Ki-sar of Sul-gi«mi-sar 

the first edition (A - d A-sar ( 3 SR?) 

25ifl2 ii and xvii, PSarg.) 
read IN KI -DUG (PN)] 

(old O ) 

A D a D ? Instead of meaningless 

La-ba-te-«sum (Gadd, EDSA 
PI. 3 BM 111*703 iii) 
read either La-ba-«a D - 
sum, or more probably 
La-ba-a&! -sum, based on 
comparison with La-ba- 
ak-[s]um in Jacobsen, AS 
XI 91 n. 136 


Aft afc A-da-na-ajj A-da-na-a& 

la^a&-ma-an na-a^-ba-tura 

ifc me-e&-zum ^A-bi-iJj 

na-si-ijj ze-i&-ru-um (SgR?) 

Se-eb-la-am (CT XXXII 15 
rev. 5) 

u& -nu-u&-si 

su-tu^uja-ba-tim (ST&?) 




KAM kam i-li-kam 

GIS.TUKUL-kam (copy) 



kam-lurru Doubtful 


236. ^ 



Im-ti- ( D jHD) 



ar— ba— im 






xna-bar-s'u (copy) 


SES-za-fcar (§p) 

A-fcu-Ba-fcar (FJpO 











fraur-nx-isl-ku (NSQ) 

Si -murium* 1 (TMH V 151 










o ) 




^N.ZU-u-zi-li (SL D x ) 



See No, 296 


4 ) 


esi , as See No. 1 


A, ) 







Za-ab-ra-am (HSS X) 

-da-ab (T D 7 B) 



te ub 

21*7, <gHi 
KIS kis 


Sag-ub KI (ITT I 1101 rev,; Sag-ub KI ■ (cf . references 
1U6U rev.) compared in Gelb, AJSL LV 82) 

with Sag-«ib KI (ITT I 
1096 rev.) 

Ur-kis KI (Gelb, HS pp. 56 

and 11U) 
Sa^ar-kis (Reisner, TUT 

212; RTC 355) 

MI mi Ifia-rai- 


-mi-kir- (MGR) 

2J49. 4J3I 

GUL gul 


SuTJ sun 



Es» -dar-tu-gul (DGL) 
gul-la-tum. Doubtful 


Ur- ,d Nin-sun (BIN VIII p. 47) ^in-sun 


NA na Ur-'Htt-na-zi (BIN VIII 

p. 46, PSarg.) 

Only in £u-un-na-a (Orient. 
XLVII 2li9:59) 

251. C5 

NIM nim da-nim 


num pu-ze-num (B§N) 
Na-num (FM) 
Gi-num (DP 173 v, PSar'g.) 


A-na~*ia-num (Barton, HLG 
II 88 iv) 

25h. <37 

lam lam-nam 


za-lam (SIM) 





lam URIT -lam compared 

with URIT 1 -lam. Doubtful 
Lara -gi-um compared with 
Lam-gi-ura. Doubtful 

is -*a-ru compared with 


I-rx-is -'W-lfl 


Is -e-si-*ia-ot compared 
with I-is-e-si-na-at 

IAM+KUR? -g[ a-r]u-*un J 
(HSS X 38 iii 6) 
a? NI-r£-is x -tin 
Mus. Adab 280) 


in? NI-r£-is x -tim (1st. 


ZUR zur 



E-zur-i-li and I-zur-f-lf 
(read thus with von 
Soden, AS p. 109, con- 
trary to Gelb, AJSL 
LIII 185) 


BAN ban 

Ban-ga KI (FM 33 iii) 

257. <£JT 
OIM gim 



Perhaps also A-bf-GIM 
and I-sar-GIM 

Difk din ? i-din (twice) 
x x 

Perhaps also A^bi*l-GIM 

258. <£T* 

UL ul sa-bu-ul-ti 




258a. <«W 

A syllabic value is re- 
quired in Ri-zu-x (TMH 
n.F. i/n -U7I3, 5) 

GiR g£r 

Ku-ru-^ir-ra (BE I PI. 

VI v) 
Si-ira-gir-na (MDP XIV 32 

rev., perhaps Ur III) 


GiR ne?, ner? If ^Ir.IMUG.GAL is 
to be read as we-irx- 
gal, following Radau, BE 
XXX/l p. 12 n. 5, Weidner, 
OLZ XX 17, Hallock, AS VII 
p. 58, and Falkenstein, 
Topographie von Uruk p, 31. 
[I can find no occurrence 
of an older spelling GiR. 
AB.GAL, listed by Falken- 
stein, loc* cit.]. This 

E-la-ag-su-glr (* 6 QR) 

Gxr-^ba-nura compared with 
Kir-ba-num (KRB) 

Cf . under Sargonic 

reading, as well as iqy 
own comparison of J&e(r)- 
irf-gal of RA IX PI. I 
with Sler-gal of Ra XLII 
6:5 (both inscriptions of 
Urkis) 9 and Nougayrol 's 
interpretation as jPIRI. 
GAL in RA XLII 8, are not 
in accordance with Thureau- 
'Dangin, R&C Suppl. pp. llff., 
where the values Nil and 
PIRIG are attached to the 
next sign. Cf * also 
Landsberger *s criticism 
in MSL IV pp. 12f . of 
both the values ne of the 
GiR sign and iri of the 
UNTO sign 

PIRIG bir x /mir y 

AD.DA-na-PIRIG (twice, 


N> 6 R) 

261. tf>~ 

SI si 






IGI igi 

Sum. Ur- d Igi-(a)ma-se (DP 

Igi-fca-lum (CT XXXII 20 

191 ii, PSarg.) compared 

ii+), Igi-&al-lura 

d v * 

with Igi-ma-se 

in Ur 

(Orient. XLVII hSS) 

III (Schneider, 


compared with l-gij-fca- 

No. 195) 

lum (CT XXXII 10 U 
Legrain, TRU 110 rev.) 

LIM lim 

Za-Hm-tum (§LM) 




li(ia) mas-li(»)-«ffl (SL^) 

Ri-a-li(m)-ZU (ITT I 1370) 

BAD e badn 

i-li-li(m)-sim (syO 
I~li(m)-me-sura. Doubtful 

Unwni -da-bat^ (T^B) 

263. ^MRf 








263a. <MF 

SIGk sa^Se In Stmu Gfe.SIGg.GA (Iraq 
VII 62 A. 9hk*h) com- 
pared with normal Gift* 
SE*GA (SL II hkk, U3) 

In Sura, lu-bal-SIG^ com- 
pared with Lu-bal- 
sa(g)w, Ur-SIG^ com- 
pared with Ur-sa(g)K, 
and other examples 
listed by Schneider in 
Orient, n.s. XVI 30$ 

26u. <T^HT 




&"da-mi -s a-r a-ara 



[SA 17 sa 17 

von Soden ! s evidence in 

Dam-ku-sa- 7 (this reading 

AS p, 77 is not con- 

was suggested by von 

clusive: both sa -ta 
and u-sa-«-]ji-ru-un are 

Soden in ZA XL 213, but 
not registered in his 

doubtful readings 


266. <$¥ 
DI di 


[Contrary to Ungnad, MAS 
p. 7 and von Soden, AS 
.p. 17, syllabic value 
di is not used in Sarg.; 
the only possible ex- 
ception is [A]-ba- i)a-di] 





Na-di- d M.ZU (Boson, TCS 

A-ba-Da-di and A-ba-nOa-di 

GIS ma-sa-tum (USD?) 
sa-bi-tum compared with 





du^tu^Cf. DUL.DUL (Gelb, HS p. 

32, Fara), if to be read 
as Du^-dU/- comparable 
to Du-du (MAD I) 

Ur-4)U£-?*na-rall (Langdon, 
TAD 39) compared with 
Ur-Tum-ma-al and Ur- 
Tum-al (Orient. XXIII 

Cf . D^-tub* 1 (Kh. 1935, 
58; 68; 69; etc., all 
OB) and Tu-tu-ub KI (MAD 

Possibly in Nin-DUL-ar-za- 
tum and other DN's com- 
posed of ^in-DUL- (Schnei- 
der, AnOr XIX Nos. 373-377) 

268a At^^T 

*!! e ll ? li " e n 

(MDP XI p. 3 iii 

twicej p. 9 ii, iii, 

A-ba-e n -li (ITT Il/l p. 
16, 721, translit. only) 


KI ki 





Ma-an-ki-ira-lu-us « 



Ki-da-nura compared with 
Gi, -da-num (G'D) 

i-a-tum-ki (DMQ) 

270. $Y< 
DIN din 



DIN-Ga-ga (HSS X 129 rev.; 
187 iii) 

Sin-din-EZEN+AN-ga (Jes- 
tin, TSS 629 i, Fara, 
etc., cf. No, 114) 


Din-tir (AnOr I 88 

▼iii; BIN V 277 ii) 

(Schneider, AnOr XIX 
No. 1*88) 
ti UrAa-an-is-diCn) 


compared with Ma-an-is- 

Mu-ur-di(n) -ga-ba 

(Legrain, TRU 256 rev.) 

compared with Mu-ur-ti- 

ga-ba (Nikolski, Dok. 

II U76 i) 
ZA.QA-.DIN compared with 

ZA.8ft.TI (SL 587, 130 

and 132) 

271. <f 


DUN dim Dun-ne-nu-um (PSarg.) A-dam-dun 

Dun-num Bi -da-dun (Orient. II 


du(n) (AN§E) DU(N) M (Falken- 

stein, GSG I 3U, Gudea) , 
DU(N).flR.RA ^Fish, MCS 
I 28), Ur- ANSS DU(N).&R. 
RA (TCL V 6038 iii) 

SUL sul d S[ul]-l[a]-at (UET ni 

iSOk vii) 

272. ^f 

KUG ku Tir-ku(g) (HSS X 136+) Tir-kug (Contenau, CHEU 

$k iii) compared with 
Tir-gu (U 2760+) 

271*. « 

[MA.N Cf. No. 90] 

275. «< 

V V V 

ES es, us 



This sign appears in 
the form of three oblique 
wedges in: 
li-fcu-E§ = li-bu-us x (tt* 6 §) 
Sis-kir (OIP XIV 183) 
^s-fca-ra (A 839) 
In the form of three ver- 
tical wedges int 
i-fcu-ES =* i-feuMis 
^-kir (OIP XIV 192) 
Cf . also P*fi- -dar, with 
three horizontal wedges, 
found about ten times in 
an unpubl. tablet from 
the Haamnurapi Period 

Instead of li-^u-ba of 
von Soden, AS p. 79, 
read li-fcu-us ] 

This sign appears in the 

form of three Winkel- 

haken in: 
Es-dar (RTC 3% ITT II 

PI, 87, 103U rev.; etc.) 
Ga-es KI (TMH n.F. i/ll 

Three vertical wedges: 
Ga-es KI (TMH n.F. i/ll 

73a rev.; 166; etc.) 



Cf. No. 1 


Gu-la (Deimel, Fara II 

1 ix, PSarg.) 
Lu-la-um (PBS IX 106) 

-^u-la (Orient. XLVII hi 

rev. ) 
A-fri-la-bi ( D x SLB) 
Kur -ru-ub -E-la-ag 

27? a . rn 

IAL.RIN sur 

Cf . Zariqum ensi of A -IAL. 

with Zariqum ensi of A- 

v. ,KI d A v KI 
sir: or A-sir , 

discussed by Hallo, 
JNES XV 220-225 


I-ti-A-LAL.RIN* 1 (A 5169) 

Genouillac, TD 8U:2) 

272 rev. ii) 

278a. ^0 
i/L.RIN sur 

Cf. No. 277a 

280, j!lT 

KIL kil Du-kil- (TKL) 


ZAR zar 

§ar? zar-tim (MAD I 159) . 

A -zar ( 5 3 §R) 


vP— -~=y 


U 8 u g Ug-lu-a (ITT II/2 -p. 30, 


U fl -lu-a (CT III $ ii), 

U fl -lu x (CT IX 18 ii), 
Ug-lu-a 1 ^ (Barton, HLC 
I PI. 10, UOO; PI. 11, 
772; ITT IV p. 71, 7736; 
p. 87, 8022). This 
reading is more plausible 


than Ganam-udu(-a ) of 
other scholars. Cf. 
possibly a-sa gu-ba- 

* KT 

na U-lu (ITT V 6723) 

283. £U 
TuX tul 


287- y>- 







SIB sib? 

Me-kir- (MGR) 

gUR.SAG Bar-sib (Thureau- 
Dangin, SAKI p. 70 vi 
59). Unique. Read per- 
haps simply Bar-me and 
cf. Bar-me-um KI (HSS X 
5) and Mas-kan-Bar-m 
(JCS IX 62 No. 9:5j 65 
No. 21:6, OB) 

289. J^U 
IB ib 



290. Jgf 

KU ku 


(old p ) 







ku-ra-tum (QRD) 

DUR tur ? kap-dur-ru ^KPTR) 

Cf. also GIS DUR.GAR (ITT 
II/2 p. 26, UU72, etc.) 
- durgaru (CT XVIII 3 
vi 1) 



SE se 


(old|£[ ) 


bi-ee-lu-bi-na (BE I 11) 

Se-efc-ri-in-ib-ri (BE I 

11 rev.) 



Instead of Dab^?-ba-tum 
of von Soden, AS p. 83, 
read Ku-ba-tum] 

tf-na-ap-se-in (BE III 
110 x) 




tis c 






Su-nam-in-da-a 10 - (MAD I) 
compared with Su-nam- 
in-da-* KI (ITT Il/2 p. 
39, U701 and perhaps p, 
26, iiU70) 
Su^u&-na KI (Iraq VII 66, 
F 1153 and F 115?) com- 
pared with NA Su&ni (cf. 
Michel, TO I 1*61 n. 3U) 
Su-Nu-nu (MDP XIV 6 ii) . 

d §ft-NIR-da 


da = u Su-NIR-da (Beimel, 
PB No, 3120) * 

Instead of S-se^bu of 
von Soden, AS p. 83, 
read zfo.SB.MUN] 

Instead of is 9 -bu of von 
Soden, AS p. 83, read 
ES.GfD; instead of iSL- 
lul read isl-lul] 


KU ^LU.fe and LU.tfe (LP) 
GIS QA.LU.UB and g&.LU.fe 


, mu. 
Ur-^u- mus-da (TMH 

V 39 vi) 


Gar-zi-da ( Orient . 
XLVII 3U7; Nikolski, 
Dok. II 236 ii+), if 

compared with Kar-zi- 

da (passim) 

Na-]ji-es-tum (TCL V 6162 
i) compared with Na-&i- 
is-tum (Ghiera, STA 3 
iii). Read perhaps Na- 

&i-AS-tum and cf. No, 

d, *+ v d v 
^Ju- mus-da = Nu-mus- 

da (AnOr XIX Nos, 5l6f.) 

292. pi 

LU lu Be-lu- Ze-lu-us- (§LL) 

(old J5I ) Lu-sa-lim -lu-ba-lx-it 


DIB %±h I-dib-si-na-at compared 

with I-ti-ib-si-na-at 



296, J 
(from old ^ ) Written J^ : 

SU su Only in Sa-as-su-ru 

(AnOr I 83), Sa-as-su- 
ru-um KI (BIN V 28), and 
Sa-su-ru-um KI (XOS IV 


Written A : 

The names Il-^-<Lb-ra-at 

(Barton, HLC II PI. 93, 

101 rev.) and Il-^V, -4>a- 

ni (RA XIX UO No. XX 

rev.) require collation 





FN Ur-Kes (M0+) 
GN TJr-kes*" 1 * Urkis 

(Nougayrol, RA XLII 






Sal-la-[....] (MDP XIV 

3al-la-bi-wa KI (A 1+795) 

6 iii) 

A-pi^-sal KI (AJSL LIII 

Ba n -sal-la (AJSL LIII 

39; LV 71) 

37; LV 73) 

Sal-*ja& (SIM) 




299. X^£ 
ZUM zum 



sum Ku-zum-tura 

su( m) sar-ru -uz -zu(m) 

§ura me-e&-zum 


sum ? 



Zu(m)-zu(m)-um (Pinches, 
AT 31 rev.) and Zu(m)- 
zum (op* cit. 113) 


gu-ura-zum. Doubtful 

Zu(m)-la-lum compared 
with Zu-la-lum 

im-dufc-zum compared wijth 
in-du&-su^um ( ^MTJp?) 

Bu-zum-se-en compared 
with Bu-sa-am (Gelb, 
HS p. Ill) 

Zu(m) -mi-id- compared 
with SuHfci-id- ( 3 jMD) 

300. X^ 

NIN nin -sa-nin-su 
DN I-nin- 

ni(n) HE ni(n)-ki-ip-tum (NKP?, 


tfz-nin-nu-^s (UBT III 
3ii90) compared with 
uz-ne-nu-us (ll;9l) 


DAM dam 






li-mu-dam (LMN) 

ta» li-il~guKia(m) (copy, LQT) 

302. h£ 

GB gu -Gu-la (HSS X 219 rev,) 

ku e 





Za-an-gu-da (SNKT) 


30Lw ]>< 

da ub 

Only in Qu-u]a»nu-ri (CT 
I 19 iii) and Su-uJHju- 
nu«ri KI (BIN V 269 rev.) 

306. $%!T 

SL el el-lum 


307. £**= 
LUM lum i-lum 

lu(m) Ti-li-lu(m)-4xm (BIN VIII 
11 iii) 

(l)um? mas-li-(l)um (SL*«) 

GUM kam 

qum x 


Sa-lu(m)-ura (RTC 362) 
La-lu(m)-LUM (MAD III 
316, twice) 

na-ab-rx-(l)um (BR* ) 

zi-gum compared with zi- 
kum and zi-ku-um (ZK?) 
za-za-gum (ZZK?) 
e-lam-ma-gum ( D LMK) 

Za-ri-gum - Za-ri-iq = 
Za-ri^ku-um, each 
occurring as PA.TE.SI 
of Susa 


zi-gu(m)-um (ZK?) 










Gu-da-nu(ra) ^um 

za-&um UD*KA,BAR compared 
with za-fcu-um UD.KA.BAR 


307a. ]£* 

■SIGi -te-li, SIGi -te-lf, 
SIGi -ti-li compared 
with Si-te-lf ,. and 
SIGi -te-lanai compared 
with SIG-te-la-ni (STL?) 

310. JM 
IB ur 

UG lig 




If -ba-lik « -pa-li^j 
cf . under PLQ 

Ur-su A (Gelb, AJSL LV 81) 
I-zu-ur- (N§R) 


-ba-lik = pa-liji ? 

311. 7? 

A a 



su u -a 

DUR^ dmv 

^.DIE^- compared 
3 jLdUR- (^DR?) 










^-am-ba-ni (MDP XI p» 
3 ii) 




313- lW* 


The example gei -er-ra-an^ 
urn quoted in von Soden, 
AS p. 88, is post-Ur 

31k. Tf 
& id 

R^-ga-fd (ITT I 1391) 
Ki-ku-xd (PBS V 3k xxii, 
copy), Cf. possibly Ki- 
ku-li (DP 585 ii, PSarg.; 
ITT II p. k% 5838+), Gi- 
ku-li (UE II PI. 191 U 
11670) t Ki-ku-lu (CT IX 
20 i, Ur III). Sollberger, 
AOF XVII 29, suggests the 
reading Ki-tus-ida for 

316. ff 
Zk 2a 








raar-za-tum (ESN) 


317* ff* 
Qd fea 




There is no reason to 
read Ku, -^bum, as in von 
Soden, AS p. 88, instead 
of Qa-pum] 


320. $ 
SIG se^ 

li-se. _ -bi-lara 
a-se^-in (M)P XI p. 9 
iii, ElaraLte) 


s e, - -s e^, -^u»um 

SIG-te-la-ni, cf. No. 307a 

320a. TTT 

V V 

ES es 

Cf. No. 275 

321. JEfc 






^in-uri -ra 


GIN gf(n) Ur-Bil-gx(n)^nes (RTC 

18 rev. ii, PSarg.) 
jBil-gf(n)-mes (Deimel, 

PB No. 633, PSarg.). 

Sollberger, AOF 2VI 230, 

reads Gf N with the 

value (a)ga 

323- ^ 

OAR gar si-gar-im Ur-Si-gar (Orient. XLVII 

si-ga(r)-r£m (copy) p# f?8) 

Lu-Si-gar (Contenau, CHEU 

Gar-zx-da (Orient* 
XLVII 3U7; ttlkolski, 
Dok, II 236 ii), if 

compared with Kar-zi- 

da (passim) 

v KI / 
Gar-sa-na (of. references 

and discussion by 

Sollberger in AOF XVIII 

[1957] 10U-108) and ft- 

M sa Only in Sa-gan-UR,SAG 

(HSS X) 

za-ar-Gar-sanaa ( D o§R) 


I i . Cf. No. 103 



1. Consonants 

In the Akkadian language of the Sargonic Period the following 
consonant phonemes are known: l-to> -^Ji ^ -' -> M> &> —> -*-> 2* 
£> £> S> £> £> £> %_2' %> i» i* -• 

* is a strong consonant, sometimes expressed in writing in 
such spellings as a-as-]ai~ifr /^asjp-t/ j e-ra-a-am-su /era^amsu /, 
-ni-a-as /ni ^as /, e-ir-tim /^ertim / (copy), 

°- had not yet influenced the change a > £ in ra-si-im /ra D sim / f 
aa-nam /s,a^nam /, as opposed to OB resim , §enam . 

*- did occasionally influence the change i > e, as in i~mu~ru 
/i 3 muru / beside enmn-ru /e^muru /, E-li- , -e-li /?ell/ , u-wa-e-ru-us 
/uwa^erus/. See under i > e. 

^ evidently behaves like * , although, because of the limited 
number of examples, it is impossible to argue apodictically. Ob- 
serve the spelling ti-a-am-tim /ti^amtim/ , A-al- /^al/ (Ur III), 
311(1 J£J£l a i£ A ?lafe / or Allafc / beside e-la-kam /e^lakam/ or /ellakam/. 

The original Semitic phonemes * > jj.5 and V were probably 
coalesced into one phoneme in the Sargonic Period, as can be judged 
from the similarity in which these three original phonemes influence 
the treatment of contiguous vowels. See pp. 123ff. under vowels a 
and i. Note, however, that the phoneme \ when followed by the 
vowel a is expressed quite consistently by the sign £ ~ j^a (cf . 
Syllabary No. 17U); this spelling convention may be a leftover 
from a period in which Akkadian recognized a phoneme \ independent 

The fact that Sargonic D -, abum and ^ alakum remained abum and 
alakum in OB, but that Sargonic ^ arrasum , \ alxtum , usaVrib 
became erresum , elrbum , userib in OB, means that in Sargonic the 


phoneme \ t: s *tiU had definite characteristics which separated it 
from i w . 

For b < w see w. 

For b : m cf ♦ possibly TUG na-afc-b a-ru-um and TUG na-ba-ru^am 
in Sargonic and TUG na-ma-ru-um in Ur III. 

M > n before a dental or sibilant can be observed in the fol- 
lowing examples, all from Ur III: -ga^an-sa < * feamsa , Ri-in-da-ni 

< - KRimtani , perhaps gu-un-ge-ri if < *%um5irl > perhaps &L-in-tum if 

< #]aimdum , perhaps (Su-mu-) si-in-ti if < ^xmti «* Cf. also late 
BZEM Hu-un-ti (CM) < ITI &u-um-tum in Sargonic. A secondaiy -wn < m 
is assimilated to the following consonant in I-ti-dam < Im-ti-dam 
(MM), Ur III) and perhaps in (f5lu-mu~)si-tfi1 if < *sfmtl » 

For m < w see w. 

The prefix ma- regularly changes to na- (as in later periods) 
when the root contains a labial, as in ■K mar'frabtum > nartabtum, 
^ mar^amum > nar °amum . M remains unchanged in the MAR.TU names Mar- 
da-mu-um (RDM?) and M ar-da-ba-nu-um (RfB?). 

The pre -consonantal n is treated in two ways: n is preserved 
i* 1 da-at -ti -in-sum-ma (copy), I-din-^a-gan (Ur III), I-ku-un-sar- 
su 5 sa-an-tim 3 ga-na-^an-tum, Ma-an-ba-lum-HDa-gan , Ma-an-s a-nin-su 5 
Bi -in-ga-li -LUGAL-ri ; it is assimilated to the following consonant 
in at-ti-kum < - ftandinkum , i-ti-sum , I-ti- i)a-gan , I-gu-^a-lik , I- 
gu-Sa-lim , I-ku-mi-sar (Ur III), Da-ku-ma-tum , Da-ku-Him-ma-tum (Ur 
m ) > M aH "ta-kir < Man-majair , Ma-ba-lumAa-gan , Bi-ga-li -LUGAL- 
ri. A fully assimilated m < n can also be observed in the writing 
of umma , spelled um-ma in the Ur III Period, developed from the 
Sargonic enma , written en-ma , via an unattested *emma (for i/e > u 
before a voiced labial see p. 126). Most unusual is the preserva- 
tion of n in a verb primae n in the name En-bi-iq-^aHii-is (NPQ?)j 
the name may, however, be Amorite in view of its parallelism to 
En-gi-mu-um MAR.TU (NQM^^ Ur III), the Amorite OB name Ie-en-ti-nu-um 
in Riftin, SVIAD p. 163 (several times), and other Amorite names. 

The consonant n is sometimes assimilated to the following \ c> 
as in I-ti - d IM (Ur III) compared with I-din - d IM (Ur III), I-ti-na- 
da-ad (Ur III) ; I-ti-a-bu-um (Ur III) compared with I-ti-in-a-ku- 
um (Ur III)) I-ti-E-a compared with I-din-£-a 5 I-ti-ne-a (Ur III); 
the name of the same person is written I-din-E-a on the Ur III 

tablet 3 NT 31, but I-ti-E-a on its seal; Pa-ti-Bs, -dar compared 
with Da-din-£s » -dar (Ur III); I-ti-^-dar compared with I-din- 
sg.-dar (Ur III); I-ti- DINGXR, I-ti-£-li (Ur III) compared with 
ildin -DINGIR, I-din-i-lx (Ur III); Da-ti - d ITOIN (Ur III) compared 
with Da-ti-in - d INNIN (Ur III) ; I-ti-lr-ra compared with I-din-ir- 
ra, I-ti-nir-ra (Ur III); I-ti -^.ZU (Ur III) compared with X- 
din-^.ZU (Ur III). Similarly, we have I-ku-j£-a , I-gu-i-li , both 
with ikun as the first element, and Is-ku-jr-ra compared with Is-ku- 
un-ir-ra (Ur III) . 

A secondary n can be observed in Ur III £a-an-za-ab-tum (beside 
Sargonic and Ur III aa-za^stb-tum ) , if derived from H§B, and in Sar- 
gonic Kun -du-pum (copy, beside Ur III Gu-du-bi ) , if derived from 


The assimilation of r to the following emphatic sibilant may be 
attested in Za-za-ru-um , if derived from §R§R, and in faa-zi-num 
(and other forms), if derived from p§. 

Of the Semitic consonants s^, £ 2 , and L the Sargonic Period 
distinguishes only L 2 and 1L, and even these consonants begin to 
coalesce into a single sound. For these two sibilants, as well as 
for the possibility of recognising an s^ in the Pre-Sargonic Period, 
cf* the full discussion on pp. 3Wf* 

In the Sargonic Period the combination of the final consonant 
s of a lexical morpheme and of the initial s of the pronominal 
morpheme yields ss, not ss, as in later periods. Thus we have na- 
3 a-as-su /na 3 as-su/ , e-ri-su-nu /eris-sunu/ , i-ki-is-sum /iqis- 
sum/ (copy), a-ki-is-su, -ni^si-im /aq£s-sunisim /, ga-ti-is-su 
/qatis-su/ . Cf . also da-as-zi /tassx / for later /tassi/ and ki-is~ 
za-bi /kiszappl/ . 

In the Ur III Period we meet with spellings -a-li-is-zu , -ma- 
ti-is-zu , -bi-ti-is-zu , apparently for /alissu/ , /matissu/ , 
/bitissu /. 

The combination z+s apparently yields ss, as can be gathered 
from the spelling of the Sargonic u-sa-bi-su-ni /usa^fais-suni/ < 
^ usa^hiz-suni « 

The combination of the final dental of a lexical morpheme and 
the initial s of the pronominal suffix results in ss, as in later 

periods: I-zu- < * id-su , -i-la-zu < * illat-su , Ik-su-zi-na-at < 

V V V % 

* Iksud-sinat , -gul-la-zi-in < * kullat-sin . But we also have 3 a-wa- 
at-zu /awat-su/ , Il-la-at-zu , u-sa-am-ki-it-zu (copy), U-da-ad-ze- 
na-at (unpubl, NBC Ur III tablet, from Hallo), 

Zt > st is apparently attested in zi-is-ti (BIN VIII 1^-3:17) 
and ma-an-za-as-tum (Z 3 ,-Z); st > tt in ma-an-za-tum (Z^Z), A 
unique rt > st change may be found in za-as-da(-bi ) (SAKI p. 54 iii Hi 
24, Urukagina, translated as "Greuel" by Falkenstein, AOF XVIII 91a), 
if my interpretation of this word as a loan word from Akk. sartu is 

2, Semi -vowels 

v v 

Initial j& is changed to j± or i, as in isarum < * jasarum and 
idum < * jadum . 

For the initial ji or i (in jikmi or ikmi ) and the initial ju 

or u (in jumafohir or umakfoir ) , cf, the discussion on j>ji» 20 and l64f# 

Final j is apparently expressed in as-bi-i-ma /aspijjma ?/, Sa-ni-i 

/Sanij/ , and in ga-mi-e /in kamij/ . 

* # # 
Such regular spellings as ra-bi-um , * ra-bi-im , ra-bi-at , * sa- 

tu-um , sa-tu-im , sa-tu-e , sa-tu-a-tim may stand for dissyllabic 

V V 

rabjum , sadwum , etc., or trisyllabic rabijum , saduwum , etc, 
Fhonemically, such spellings are regularly represented in this 
study as rab.jum , sadwum , etc. 

Initial wa is normally preserved, as in wabil and warki.jum , 
but w is omitted in Ar-ti-a /(W)ardi.ja/ (Ur III), and perhaps in 
A-ru-kum ( 3 gRQ?) and A-li-id- /(W)alid / (Ur III), For wi, cf. 

V V V V 

iste , istu < *wiste, * wistu and perhaps itirtum , if it goes back to 
* (w)itirtum . For wu, cf. the spellings ur-ki-im /(w)urkim/ and 
Ur-ki-um /(W)urki,jum/ (Ur III). 

For the initial w > b cf. Ba-gar-tum (beside Wa-gar-tum ), ba- 
da-al-tum (beside wa-da-al-tum ), perhaps Ba-da-ru-um (beside Wa-da- 
ru-um ), perhaps Wa-wa-ti (beside Ba-ba-ti ), perhaps Ba-as-ti-a 
(beside U-as-ti-a ), all in Ur III. Comparable with Ba-da-ru-um of 
Ur III is perhaps Ba-da-ri-im of the Sargonic Period. 

% % V 

Intervocalic w remains in 3 a-wa-a-ti , u-wa-e-ru-us , u-wa-ga-mu . 
It disappears in A-fau-a-gar (Ur. III). 

Intervocalic w changed to b in the Ur III Period in -ba-gar 
(beside -wa-gar ) , -na-bi-ir (beside -na-wi-ir ) ; cf. also Ar-bi-um , 

Ar-bi-tum (and OB Ar-wi"*im , Ar-wi-tum ) . In Sargonic we may note 
P^' s Za-wi and Za-bi at Gasur, and the word a-bi-Ium , which might 
be taken to be later awllum in view of the Ur III parallels /-bi*- 
Ii-a and A-wi-li-a , A-bi-la-sa and A-wi-Ia-sa , A-bx-li and A-wi-lx 5 
A-bi-la-num and OB A-wi-la-nura or A-wi -la-nu-um . Cf . also a garment 
written na-wa-su-fau-^im and na-ba-su-fau-um in Ur III and na-ma-su- 
ba-um in Cappadocian (of unknown etymology) and the words ha-um , 


ha-bu-urtu and IM faa-um listed in MAD III 122.. 

The w > m change can be observed in the Ur III Na-me-ir- (be- 
side Na-wi-ir- ) • Cf . also Sargonic Na-mu-ru-um , and the Sargonic 
names ^"l u "^ e "l^ t &-lu-Me-ir compared with the Ur III A-Jju-^je-ir t 

FU.SA- We-ir . 

A secondary w appears in the Ur III examples A-feu-wa-lf (com- 
pared with A-&u-a-li /A^a-all /j note, however, that Sollberger, AOF 
VJU 21 n. 51, reads our A-^u-wa-li as A-ku-¥e-ir l) and Su-wa-li 
/Su-all/. Another example of a secondary glide w may be assumed in 
■ ftAfauwa on the basis of occurrence of A-fau-ma (ensi of Pus, e.g. in 
TCL II 5501 rev., Ur III) beside A-fau-a (ensi of Pus in UET I 93, 
Ur III). 

3. Vowels and Diphthongs 

The following vowels are known in the Sargonic Period: a, e, 
i, u, both short and long. 

Of these, only a, i, u are original; e is secondarily derived 
from a, as in e-ra-si-is /eras is/ from # \arasis , or from i, as in 
E-li- /Ell / from 3 ill j while e or e are derived from i plus a "weak* 1 
consonant, as in ip-te /ipte/ from ipti \ , from a plus a "weak" con- 
sonant, as in be-li /bell/ from *ba\ li , from a dip thong aj, as in 
Me-sar /Mesar / from - frMajsar, or from an original I, as in SAM-me 
/ si W from si^mi (oblique case of PI.). The phonemic contrast 
between short and long e, on the one hand, and short and long i, on 
the other, can be established on the basis of a number of consistent 
spellings: erasis (and other cases of e derived from a, discussed 
just below) written regularly with B, and iris , etc., written regu- 
larly with I; ennum written regularly with EN, and in written regu- 
larly with IN; beli written regularly with BE, and biru , etc., 

written regularly with BIj note also the regular spellings of 
isme with MS (never MI), aqabb£ a etc., with BI (never BE), u-bx-lam , 
-bi-la- , etc., with Bf or BI (never BE). For certain cases of 
inconsistency in the spelling of l/e derived from i plus a "weak" 
consonant cf. p. 125, in the spelling of I/e of the oblique case 
of PI. cf . p , 138. 

The long vowels are indicated in this study by a macron, as in 
a, e, I, u, or by a circumflex, as in a, J>, f , u. The macron stands 
for morphemic length, as in ma&jrum , dame , ispiki , ispiku ; while 
a circumflex stands for long vowels resulting from contraction of a 
short vowel plus any fweak 11 consonant, as in tabum , n£rum, belum , 
nurum , or of a diphthong, as in Mesar (Ur III Misar ) and umum . A 
circumflex is used also to indicate the long medial vowel in the 
verbs secundae \ and j> , as in itur , iqxs . The distinction between 
the length indicated by macron or circumflex is neither phonemic 
nor phonetic. The two different lengths are used here to indicate 
the two different backgrounds of the long vowels. 

Vowel a in an open syllable beginning with JU e remains a, as 
^ a " par "^ / \ abarti/ , a-li«-dam / ^aljltam /, a-ti /\ adi/ 3 -a-mi 
/ \ami/ , (La-) 3 a-ra-ab /-^arab/ * ^a-ru-us / ^arus /j ^nani-tom 
/ Vamuqum /, na« ? a-si /na* asi/ , ra-a-^pum /ra* abum/ 3 and da-la- 3 a- 
m « But a > £ is attested in e«-ra-si-is /^ erasis/ , e-nu "utensils 11 
(of unknown etymology), and in e-ri-su-nu / D ~ eris suno/ and e-ri-ib-su 
/ ^eribsu/ , presumably under the influence of the Worn, forms 3 ersum 
and Verbum (see next paragraph). I-za-na-ma /i§anaama/ t occur- 
ring in a late copy, is derived from *is, \ anamma . In the Ur III 
Period e occurs throughout, as in e-li-t[um] (Lullubum) , -e-mu-uq , 
e-ru-ba-tum , and ne-si (N D .S) . 

Vowel a in a closed syllable beginning with JU tj usually be- 
comes e, as in el-lum /\ ^ellum /, En-num- /°~ ennum ?/, En-bu- 
/ \enbu /, Ip-sum /\ ^epsum/ , Im-tum / D . emdum /, Iz-bu^um / 3 . eabum/ , 
Ir-sum /\ ^ ersum / j e-de-sum-ma / ^eddesumma /, and once ni-is 
/ne^ es/. On the other hand a is preserved initially in al-su 
/ \alsu/ , perhaps under the influence of all or the like, and in 
^-ra-sum / ^arrasum /j medially it is preserved in en-ar /en^ ar/, 
na- J a-as /na^ as/, and perhaps be-al /be\al/, if we read be-al , 

and not be-el . In Ur III Period we have ni-is /ne^-es/ and 

- -■■ x - ■■ . — — <— 

ir-ri-sum /^ erresum/ . * 

Vowel a in a closed syllable ending with 2 o ^ usually remains 
a, as in a-ru-*ts /a^ rus/ , a-ri-is- /a_V ^ris/ , I -da- /|da^ /, u- 
sa-mi-id Asa\md/, u-sa/sa-r£*-ib /usaVrib /, zu-da-ri-ib 
/suta^Krib/, na-ra^-ab-ti-*su naVrabtisu (copy), Isnma- , Is-ma- 
/ismaj* /, once xl-ga /ilqaV / (unpubl.), and Sa-li-ba /Sa\liba/ . 
On the other hand, cf. be-li , Is -me- (rarely even in Pre-Sargonic 
and Sargonic), te-er-ra-is (Pres.), and ne-ba-^u-um for later 
nebefou . In the Ur III Period we have regularly be-li , Isnue- (but 
also archaically written Is -ma- ) , Se-li-bu-mn (but this name of an 
ensi of Sabum is written also Ta-la-bu and perhaps M Saiabu w ) , Ne- 
bi-ru-um , and ne-ri-bu-um . Ze-ra-su ? /zera 3 ! su/ , if written 
correctly, would show a preserved a in an inscription from Lullubum. 
Vowel a followed by 2o £ beginning another syllable remains a, 
as in ba.... -u-la-ti /ba \ ulati / 3 ar-ba-ura /arba^ um/, ar-fca-im 
/arba ^ im/, na-^a-si /na D oasi / 3 etc. Exceptions are very few, as in 
-ri-i-su /re 3 . ?su /, Ri«* ill -turn /Re\£tum / f be— al, and once ni-is 
*es/. In Ur III we have regularly e, as in Ri-i-si-in , ni-is , 

Vowel a not in proximity with l^d beginning another syllable 
remains regularly a in Sargonic, as in a-bar-ti /^ abarti /, e-ra- 
si-is / \erasis /, e-dam-da /e Vfcamda /, etc., but it changes to e in 
Ur III, as in Se-li-bu^um , ir-ri-sum 3 ae-ra-su? (Lullubum), Ne-bi~ 
ru-um , ne-ri-bu^om , etc. 

Instead of Sargonic ar-ra-dam la-mu-dam we have ir-ra-dam li- 
mu-dam in an Ur III inscription from Lullubum. 

Vowel i followed by any of the so-called weak consonants either 
remains i, as in i-bu-us , i-ti-ru , i-la-ak , i-^u-uz , a-ga-^)i , ik-mi , 
Ip-ti^im , Ar-si- , da-as-zi , or it changes to e, as in e-bi-is , -e-ri» 
is , e-ru-ub , e-la-kam , e-mu-ni j E-bi-ir- , ik-me , Ip-te^u-um , li-ip-te- 
u-ma , ip-te-u , u-ga-e < *uqawwij (copy), na-e < *na :> -ij , also fl-e , 
Is -e-, jr-e- , if these forms should go back to - fril^ ^ij, *is \ jyi.j 
*irV ij. Cf . also the interchange of I with i in oblique case of 
PI. discussed on p. 138, 

Vowel i preceded by a weak consonant usually remains i, as in 
i-lx /* ill/ f I-zu- /issu- /, in, sometimes it changes to e, as in 
E-li-, -e-lx , E-zu- (HSS IV 79, Ur III), Ir-e-mu^um , u-wa-e-ru^us . 


The change i > e sometimes appears even before a strong con- 
sonant, as in e-ra-a-am-su 5 en-^a-ru , es^a-ru (beside is -a-ru ) , 
B-zur- (beside I-zur- , Ur III) , e-ir-tim (copy), perhaps En-bi-iq- . 

Under certain conditions (still to be investigated) vowel i 
changes to u before a voiced labial, as in »°immum > ummum "mother," 
*simum > sumum "name, 11 also enma > - fremma > umma (in Ur III) "thus." 
Another u < i is exemplified in eddesumma in e-de -sum-ma (E DN i- 
bu-jis) "he made anew the temple," which can be compared with 

V«. V . ^ V V KI v \ 

eddesima in id-di-si-roa (BAD GAL sa Kis la e -faunas ) "I made anew 
the great wall of Kis" in an inscription of Asduni-erim (cf » MAD 
III 20). 

Vowel i changes to u before an emphatic consonant, as in 
-fr^ is,arum > u$arum " court, " Outside of Old Akkadian, cf . i$urtum 
and ugurtum "plan," us, sum "arrow,* 1 u-fcta-taiM (kind of grain), uqnum 
"lapis lazuli" from ^iqni^um (cf. Ugaritic). 

For i > u before s cf . the discussion on the morphemes -^s and 
-™ * bel ° w pp. Ih2£t. 9 and also the Ur III names Su-bx-is-bu-faa (De 
Genouillac, TD p. 9) and Su-bu^as-ku-ki (Langdon, TAD 67).. 

The original diphthong aj changed to e or x, as in Me-sar < 
* Majsar , e-ni-a < *\ ajnia 3 u-se -. -zi < susajsi 3 , e ( tal-li-ik ) < 
*!l2l tellik "may you not go," but a i-ti-in /ajiddin / or /ajjiddin ?/ 
"may he not give." In Ur III we have -mi-sar 5 but also rarely 
-me-sar , and Bi-tum- < *Bajtum . 

The original diphthong aw changed to u, as in u-mi- < *jawmi- 5 
u-su-zi < * usawsi 3 ♦ 

Before a labial, forms with u interchange with those with a, 
implying perhaps the existence of an allophone o. Cf . PUB -si-ga 
and TAB -si-ga (TPSK), GUR.DUB and gur-da-f bu/bi 1 (GHDP?) . DUB- 
ru-um and Da-ab-ra^um (DBR?), Tu(m)-ba-^aI K I and Da-ba-al K I * 
probably later Tub/pl-ias (DBL?). Cf. also Syllabary Nos. 90, 
101, and 201. 

A short unstressed vowel is still sometimes preserved, as in 
u-bi-lam , u-bi-lu-nim (beside u^b-lam , ub-lu , li-is-bu ) , i-fra-ni- 
gtti -ma /ibbanisuma / for later /ibfaansuma ?/, be-la-ti-su (Ur III, 
for later beltisu ) , Ha-bi-Ium (compared with Qa^ab-lum ) , Ga-li-bu- 
urn (compared with Gal-pum ) , Ti-ma-tum (compared with Ti-im-tum , 
under m), ba-da-ru^um (if identified with the later pajjrum, and 


no ^ PQ-ttarum ) 9 Ti-da-nu (compared with the Ur III -Ti-id-ni-im , 
now under TDN? in MAD III 295, to be transferred to DUN), also in 
i-ru-kum (^RQ?), tu-lu-bu-*im (DLB) , nu-zu-bu^um (NSg). It may- 
be observed that in almost all the above cases the preservation of 
the vowel may have been due to the proximity of a syllabic consonant. 
The secondary emergence of a vowel in proximity to a liquid may be 
seen in -ki-bi-ri beside -ki-ib-ri (Ur III) and na-bi-ri-um beside 
na-ab-rx-um (Ur in). 

Most unusual for Old Akkadian is the elision of vlie final weak 
consonant in the following Ur III PH's: A -bu-um-sa-ad "father is a 
mountain" (but A-^u-sa-tu in Sargonic) and Ma^an-gi-ir "who is 
opposition?" (like UR U 3yian-na^gi-ir - d UTU in BE XVTI 2U:18, MB, but 
Ma-an-nu^m-gi-ri -VrU in CT VI k9b 25, OB) . 

Two examples of crasis are a-na-lim-ma for ana-^alimma and 
a-na-^a-si-su for ana-na^asisu » Contraction of two syllables is 
found in na-si \ ne-si (Ur III) , compared with na-^ansi , and more 
frequently in FN's, such as Is-me-lum for Is-me-i-lum , Is-ni-lum for 
Is-ni-i-lum , I-bi-lum (Ur III) for I~bi-£-lum , La-ra-bu^um (Ur III) 
for La-^a-ra-bu-^im , i-li-mi-Ia-at (Ur III) for ttj-lx-ma-ll-la-at , 
I-gu-r:x~ik (Ur III) and I-za-rx-ik (Ur III) for I-zu-a-r£-ik /issu- 
arik/ (Ur III). 


1. Personal Pronouns 

a. Independent 

Sg. 1 c. anaku ' PI. *ninu 

2 m. atta *attunu 

2 f. attar' #attina 

- h) 

3 m. su *sunu 

3 f. si" *sina 

1) Attested in a-na-gu , a-ca-ku-u (Ur III). 

2) Attested in ad-da . 

3) Attested in at-ti . 

h) Attested in su^ ( li-jjn-fau-ra-gn-pj ) , Su ^-be-lf) , _Su, (-be-la) . 

SuC-be-la) , |u(-bAd), Su(-ffl-lf), TSu1?(-roi-ig-rx) in Sargonicj 
Su(-be-li) in Ur III. 

$) Attested in Si(-da-na-at) , * Si(-ttm-mi) 5 Si(-be-la) in Sar- 
gonic; Si(-da-na-at) , Si(-tu-ri) , §i(-be-lx) in Ur III. 

The 3rd pers. personal pronoun "he," "she," "it," "they" cor- 
responds to the demonstrative pronoun "this," "these" (see pp. 132f.). 

All the above forms are Nom. forms. The Dat. is attested in 
Su i -a-as ( -da-gal ); Gen, PI. perhaps in ( [a] ? - ) su , - ni-ti (A 708). 

In addition to su> forms prolonged by -t- are attested in PN's 
Su. -a-tum( -mu^da) , Su-a-ti , and Su-a-tum . 

Strengthened by -ma this pronoun occurs in the form sui -ma "he 

The P^ (M-)su» -a means probably "what is it?" in parallelism 
*° l!^ZfiSlS£^2 n ™ho is it?" (Stamm, ANG pp. 102 , 131), but the ex- 
planation of the case of -suj -a is questionable; the -^a of sui -a 
may perhaps be identical with the Ace. morpheme ^a of the noun in 
the Pred. St. (pp. l**6ff.). Cf. also ( Mi-)su. -at (DP 1^1 ii 1, PSarg.). 

b. Suffixal 

i. With Nouns 




Sg. 1 c. 


bSli-I 2) 

bel5-(i)a 3) 

2 m. 


beli-ka 10 


2 f . 


beli-ki 6) 

bSl-ki 7) 

3 m. 

bel^u 8) 

beli-au 9 ^ 

bSl4u 10 > 

3 f . 


bSli4a 12 > 

bSl-Sa 13) 

PI. 1 c. 

bSl-ni/a 110 


bel-ni 1 ^ 

2 m. 


baLi-kunu/i 16) 


2 f. 




3 m» 

bel-sunu/a/i ' ' 

beli-Sunu/i l8) 


3 f . 

b?l4in(a) 20) 


bel4in(a) 21) 

1) Attested in be-lx , a-bi in Sargonic and Ur III. 

2) Attested in ( a-na FN) be-li* (u) a-bx / frequently in proper 
names of the construction (Pu*.SA-) jL-liV (Su* -mu-)be-Ii f ( Na-ra-am-)i-li , 

(Mas-gan-)a-bx in Sargonic and Ur III. The form in -ia , as in 
be-lx-x-a , be-el-ti-i-a in the CM, is of course late. Of. (Nu-ur-)x- 
3a in Ur III with (Nu-^ir-)i-li-a in OB (PBS Xl/2 p. li£), but also 
(Su-)x-li in Sargonic with ( Su-)x-li-a in Ur III, 

3) Attested in 3 a-wa-a-ti j a-bi 3 si-ip-rx in Sg., but e-ni-a in Du. , 
si?-ir-gu-a , sa-bi-ni-a in PI, Thus the suffix is -d after a short 
vowel, as in beli-i > bell n of my lord, 11 but ^a after a long vowel, 
as in enx-a > enla n my eyes, 1 * belu-a > belua w my lords. n 

h) Attested in (in) ra-ma-ni-ga . 

5) Attested perhaps in da-ad-ga /dad-ka /. * 

6) Attested in (in) uz-ni-ki , -la-Ia-ki (Ur III), 

7) Attested in su-lum-ki , perhaps za-wa^ar-ki . 

8). Attested in il-su , ma-j^a-ar-su , S^M nm-gu ("its price") in 
Sargonic; -il-su , -il-su in Ur III, 

9) Attested in ( a-na ) be-lx-su , (in) u-mi-su in Sargonic; 
( a-na) be-lx-su , ( a-na ) ba-la-ti-su in Ur III, 

10) Attested in mim-ma-su , ik-ri-bi-su (PI,), DI.TAR-su in 
Sargonic; za-la^am-su , ik-ri-bi-su in Ur III, 

11) Attested in Mim-ma-sa , KUG.BABBAR-sa in Sargonic; Ip- 

ku-sa , Ip-ku-sa , Gas-bu-sa (.PI.) in Ur III. Suffix ^-si occurs 

apparently in ( A-li -)KUG.BABBAR-si for /(Alx-)kaspu-si/ , Cf , Ma- 

v -p v 
an-na-si (beside Ma-an-na-sa , both in Stamm, AHG p. 131), Na-wa- 

ar -si ( -luHsiu-ur) (Syria XXI 15U, Mari, beside Ma-ma-ar-sa(-Iu-mur) , 

VAS VIII 80:6, OB), and (if-zur-)a-wa-zi (JCS IX 106 No. 58:17, OB). 

12) Attested in (Ni-se 11 -)e-ni-sa in Sargonic; -mi-ig-ri-sa 
in Der, 

13) Attested in ma-sa^ak-sa in Sargonic; perhaps also ga-lu- 
ma-sa and mu-ra-as in a Sargonic incantation; ga-ga~za /qaqqassa / 
in Ur III. Difficult is the form A-wi-la-sa , A-^wi-la-sa , i-frf-la-aa 
/ Awllasa? /, all in Ur III. 

Ik) Attested in A-Jau-ni , A-bu-ni , ( l-sar -)DI.TAR-ni /-dxnni / 
or /-dim./ in Sargonic; A-bu-ni , A-Jau-u-ni , CEN.Zg-)ba-nx-ni in Ur 
III. In addition we have A-bu-na , Sa-tu-na in Sargonic, and j-du-na , 
A-fau-na in Ur III, representing archaic or dialectical forms. Unex- 
plained are the forms U-bar-ni^a , beside U-bar-ni , and Bar-bar-ni-a , 
both in Ur III. 

15) Attested in DI.TAR-ni /dxnni/ or /dxn£/ in Sargonic. 


16) Attested in (in) ga-ti-ku~ni , but (in) na-ap-ba-rinsu-nu 
in the same text in Sargonic. 

17) Attested in KUG.BABBAR -su-nu , BAD -su-nu , A-ku-su-nu , A- 
bu-sn i Hiu , ma-^a-ar-suHiu in Sargonic; ma-fca-ar-su-nu in Ur III, 

In addition, al-su-nu occurs beside al-su-ni , and many forms in -surti 

\ V V" # 

occur in such PN's as PU.SA-su^ni, A-fau-su « -ni , A-feu-su-ai , ARAD- 

. ■ V \ V 

zu-ni , GEMB- zu-ni t SAG- zu-ni in Sargonic; A-&u-su-ni , A-feu-su-ni , A-bu- 
su-ni , A -if -su-ni -, Pft.iJSA -su-ni in Ur 111$ also Me-ni-su-na , A-ba- 
su-na , Tam-li^u-na , KUG -su-na /Kaspusuna/ in Ur III. The forms in 
-suna and -suni (here and in the next two cases) can be explained 
as original Gens, of the nominatival -sunu . 

18) Attested in (in) sa-tu-su-nu (from Elam), (in) URtr -su-ni 
(copy) 9 ( a-na ) KA-KaAR -su-nu (Louvre AO 112£U rev.), (in) na-ap-fea- 
rf-su-nu , but (in) ga-ti-ku-ni in the same text in Sargonic. 

19) Attested in sar-rf-su-nu a e-ri-su-nu (^HS), dub-bi -su-ni 
in original inscriptions, and URIT .URIP -su-nu/ni , BlD.R&D ^su- 
nu/ni in late copies. 

20) Attested in wa-bfl-si-in , al-si-in , Sar-ru-si-in , KUG. 
BABBAR -si-in » SIPA -si-in ^ but also Si-*ir-e-si-na , A-jiu-si~na , 
A-jiu-se-na in Sargonic; SIPA -se-in , Rj-i-si-in , Ri-si-in in 

Ur III. 

21) Attested in sar-ri-si-in , BAD -si-in , -gu-bi-si-in , ( 1-zi- 
ir-)gul-la-zi-in in Sargonic. 

ii. With Verbs 

Dat. Ace. 

Sg. 1 c. im£ur-am imfeur-(an)nx 

irahuru-nim ' tamhurx-ni ' 
d\ 6) 

2 m. im&ur-kum ' im&ur-ka 


2 f. *im]jur-kim im&ur-ki ,; 

v 8) v 9) 

3 m. im&ur-sum im&ur-su 

. . --10) 
xrajjuru-s ' 

v 11) v 12) 

3 f . im&ur-sim ' im&ur-si 

v 13) 
PI. 1 c. imbur-nias J *&ra&ur-niat 

2 m. ^m&ur-kunisim -wim&ur-kunu/i 

2 f, 4dmbur-kinasim -Kimfcur-kinat 

3 m. ira&ur-sunisiiri*' im&ur-sunu/i ' 

V V V 16) 

3 f. *£m&ur-sinasim imfcur-sinat 


1) Attested in i-ti-nam , -i-ki-sa-am (Ur III), Li-bur!-ra-a[m3 
(Ur III), a-ze-ka-me /asifaam-meA u-ru-am , nu-ru-am , e-la^kam , 
su-bi-lim (Fern. Impv.) in Sg. 

2) Attested in im-hu-ru-nim , li-ru-u-nim , li-ru-nim , li-is-tu- 
ru-nim in PI. 

3) Attested in E-zur-an-ni , da-ki-ba-an-ni , (?-li-)is-ma-ni . 
Si-me-a-ni (Ur III), Is-me-ni (Ur III); with Dat. meaning in li-im- 
hu-ra-an-ni , Iq-bi-a-ni . (i-li-)bi-la-ni , Li-bur-an-ni (Ur III). 

k) Attested perhaps in da-ba-sa-jii-ni (PSg). 

5) Attested in at-ti-kum . a-na-da-kum , lu~us-ku-ul-kum , li- 

se. •. -u-ni-kum( -ma) (PI.). 

6) Attested in a-ra-is-ga , e-rx-sul-ga . 

7) Attested in u-dam-me-ki (TM 3 -.).. 

8) Attested in a-ti-sum , i-ti-sum , i~ti-nu-sum (3ubj.), ib- 
ba-al-zu^sum (Subj.), i-ki^u-sum (Subj . , copy) , -da-ak-la~ak-sum 
(Ur III), i-na-da?-nu-sum? (Subj.) in Sg.j i-ti-na-sum (several 
times, all in late copies) in Du.; im (DU) ~ku-r[u] - ni-su; (-ma) 
in PI. 

9) Attested in e-ra-a-am-su (R^M), u^sa-am-la-su , ( -ma) (PI.), 
a-gaj-^a-Ou-^u^ (Subj.), is^na^u, (copy), u-da-bi^su * (copy). 

10) Attested in u-wa-e-ra-us (Subj.), u-ru~us (Sg., copy), 
li-ru-ru-us (PI.), i- gi -ranis (PI., NKR) , -ran ma-as (impv. PI., Ur 
III), -kur-ba~as (Impv. PI., Ur III). 

11) Attested in aq-bi~si-i m. 

12) Attested in i-da-ba-a^-si ( -ma) , us-da-za-g a-ar-siC -ma) , 
u-da-bi-bu-si( -ma) (DEB?), is-ku-nu-fsil . 

13) Attested in Li-ib-lu-ut-ni-a-ags in Sargonic; Li-bur - 
ni-as , Sa-lim-ni~as in Ur III. 

14) Attested in a-ki-is-su, -ni-si-im . 

15) Attested in li-su-ze-as-su-ni , u-sa-fai-su-ni (^gZ, copy), 
id-gi-e-suj-nu(-roa ) (copy). An uncertain form is za-ab-tCi3-su- 
fni?-ti1? /sabti-suniti?/ in Sargonic. 

16) Attested in I-is-e-si-na-at or Is ( LAM+KUR) -e-si-na-at 
(S D , D 7 ), U-za-si-na-at in Sargonic; I-li-si/si-na-at , U-3a- 
ad-ze-na-at (unpub. NBC tablet, from Hallo) in Ur III. With Dat. 
meaning cf. Ik-su-zi-na-at "he (the new-born boy) has arrived 
for them (the sisters)," I-ti-ib-si-na-at and I-dib-si-na-at 

"he was good to them," also the doubtful occurrences of the Ur III PN's 
Ik?-bu-zi-na-at in TCL II 5k8k and "Anse Si-na-at" in Fish, CST p. 3k No, 

Discussion * The suffix of the 1st pers. Sg. appears as -am 
after a consonant, as in i-ti-nam /iddin-am /, ik-su-am /iksuwam /; 
as -im after -I, as in su-bi-lim /subili-im /; and as -nim after hi 
of the PI., as in li-is-tu-ru-nim /li s % uru -nim / . The forms i-ti- 
na-sum , -ra-ma-as (Ur III), -kur-ba-as (Ur III) are to be inter- 
preted as Du. or PI. idd i na-sum , ra D ma-s , kurba-s , just as the forms 
li-ru-ru-us , etc., are to be interpreted as Pl # liruru-s , etc., all 
without the intermediate infix -nim- . 

The same suffixes -am and -nim are used also in the Allative 
mood in such verbs as e-la-kam "he will go to here, 11 "he will come," 
ip-^u-ru-nira "they have gathered." With a further Ace. suffix we 
have li - su-z e -as -s u ~ni "may he cause them to come here." 

An unusual pronominal suffix occurs in e -la-ga -LAM+KUR found 
in an unpubl. letter Kish 1930, 768, reading as follows: en-ma 

ARttD ~ga-ni a-na Da-as -ma-t um '1 Ir-e-pum 'u 1 Bi-la-lum LU 
A+p . m ' su-ma ^ ^e-la-ga -IAM+KlIR za-ab-t[i]-su-fni?-til? "thus 
(says) "Jarassuni to Tasma c tum: . Ir^ebum and Bilalum are fugitives; 
if they (- Du.) come to ...., seize them!" Tasma c tum is a fern, 
name; the normal reading of LAM+KUR is is , 

2. Demon st rative Pronouns 

Mom. Gen. Ace, 

v v 1) v .2) 

Sg. Til. #su sua(ti) ' sua(ti) 
f. *si siati^; *sia(ti)^ 

PI. m. -asunu -xsunuti sunuti ' 

f . as ina *s inati #s inati 

1) Attested in (DN be-al DUL) su, -a. 

2) Attested in (DU3) su, -a and rarely (DU3) su-a in Sargonic; 
(DUB) su-a-t i in Ur III. In CM we find also (GAN) su. -a-ti and 
GwCn su i -a-tu . 

3) Attested in (in 1 KU) si-a-ti in Sargonic; ( ga-ga-ad um- 
ma-nim ) si-a-ti in-Der. 

li) In late copies we find (KASKAL KI ) sui-a and (SAL. ME) 
sui -a-ti . 


5) Attested in (KAS+X.KAS+X) su. -nu-ti . 

Discussion . This demonstrative pronoun su is used only as an 
adjective, and it corresponds to the 3rd pers. personal pronoun, 
discussed on pp. 127f., where such forms as su, , si , -su. -a, -su. - 
at, su, , -a-as , and -su. -ni-ti are cited. 




- 1) 


S a 3) 

, m. 

su ' 





sati^ ; 



sut ' 

-- 7) 
suti' ; 



saV ; 





The demonstrative adjective annijum occurs in Ace. Du. ( za-al- 
mi-in ) an-ni-in /( salmin ) annijin/ in an inscription from Lullubum. 

3. Determinative -Relativ e -Indef ini te Pronouns 



1) Attested in §u(- d IM), SuC-Bs^-dar) , Su( -Ma-ma) , Su( -Ma-ma) , 
Su, ?(-Nu-nu) , Su(-Nu-nu) , Su(-i-lx-su) , su ( u-sa-za-gu ) , ( ku-bu-lum ) 
su (al PN i-ba-se-u ) (PN ) su (PN 2 ), (SE) su (PN) in Sargonic; 
SuC-^.ZU), su. ( u-sa-za-ku ) in Ur III. The form su often stands 
for cases other than Norn. Sg., as in (SE) su (a-na SE.BA a-si-tu ), 
(x 1-gaz-u ) su .(PN),- ( si-tum ) su (SE.BA PN im-feur ) , (x Oz) su (PN). 
Instead of su sometimes sa is used in Norn. Sg., as in sa (DUB su^-a 
u-sa-za-ka-ni ) in Sargonic and sa (DUB su, -a u-sa-za-gu ) in Ur III. 

2) Attested in (P^DUMJ) si (Pjy, ( is-de P%) si (P^), (in ga- 
ri-im ) si ( A-ga-de K I ) , (a-na APIN.BIL) si (PN). In Ur III we have 
( a-na LlJ.MAg-im) sa (DN). 

3) Attested in (SE) sa (PN e -mu-ru ) , (DUL-su) sa (KUG.AN ib- 

ni-ma ) (copy). 

U) Attested in (field) sa-at (PN) , ( -turn) sa-at ( e-nim) 

in Sargonic; Sa-att- ^ul-gi) , f.n., in Ur III. 

$) Attested in (in sa-an-tim sa-li-is-tim ) sa-ti (DN sar-ru^ - 
dam i-ti-nu-sum ) (copy) ♦ 

6) Attested in (PN's) su-ut (PN), (x ml) su-ut (PN), (x 
AB+iCs -bu-tum ) su-ut ( en-ma m^ a-na FNg) , (x AB+AS) sju-^t (FN .... 
im-faa-zu) . 


7) Attested in ( a-na SE.BA ARAD) su-ti (GN) . 

8) Attested in (x KUS) su-ut (GN PN im-^ur ) , (x su- 
ut (E.MUN PN da-ti-in ). 

9) Attested in (x AB) sa-at (PN) in Sargonic. 

10) Attested in ( ni-se ..-) sa-at (DN i-ki-su-sum ) (copy). 

11) Attested in (2 PN's) sa (PN), Sa(-DINGIR). 
Discussion . The determinative pronoun "he (, "she," "it," 

"they") of . ..." whether used as a noun, as in "who (destroys)," 
or an adjective, as in "(the man) who (destroys)," has the same 
forms as the relative pronoun* In function the relative pronoun = 
indefinite pronoun. Cf. e.g., ku-bu-Ium su al PN i-ba-se-u "the 
debt which is upon PN" with su DI.TAR-su us-ba-ia-ga-du "who (ever) 
violates his judgment." 

The determinative-relative pronoun is written with the signs 
SU, SI, SA with the exception of the following cases: Su . (-Nu-nu) 
in TOP XIV 6 ii, which may be due to a miscopy, since SU is used 
elsewhere in this text; su. ( u-sa-za-ku) in a late inscription of 
Ari-sen, which may be due to a misunderstanding of the pronominal 
spellings ir. a text possibly written by a non-Akkadian; and su-ut 
written in a text (BIN VIII 121) which has also Su?(-mi-ig-ri) and 
Su(-Na-m a) and may, therefore, represent a different, local scribal 
convention. With these latter spellings we should compare the 
spellings with Sa, SI (beside SU) in the OB liver omina referring 
to the Old Akkadian Period; published in RA XXXV Ulff. Nos. 1, 2, 
3, 6, etc., and discussed by Gelb in RA L 5>f. 

U. Com parative Discussion 

Many more examples of the personal-demonstrative and the 
determinative-relative-indefinite pronouns than are quoted above on 
pp. 127-13^ are listed in MIL III 216-255. 

The following conclusions can be drawn from the occurrences of 
the pronouns discussed above: 

The demonstrative pronoun is written regularly in the Masc. 
with the SU. sign, very rarely with SU, and in the Fern, with the 31 
sign. Since the SI sign expresses the Semitic consonant s 2 , a 
priori there seems to be no reason to assume that SUt stands for a 
different consonant. 


The personal pronoun is written regularly in the Masc. with 
the SUi sign, very rarely with SU or SU, and in the Fern, with the 
SI sign. Thus it is clear that the personal pronoun of the 3rd 
pers. corresponds in Akkadian to the demonstrative pronoun. 

The pronominal suffixes present a complicated picture in 
respect to the spelling of the sibilants. We have in the Masc. 
-su , -su-nu , -su-ni , -su t , rarely -^su r -nu , rarely -su.) -ni , -su* -ni- 
si-im , rarely -su-nu , rarely -su-ni , -(u)s , -(a)s , and in the Fern* 
~sa, -si , -s i-in , -si-na , -si -dm , -si-na^at 3 rarely -se-na . While 
the spelling of the Fern, suffixes corresponds closely to that of 
the independent demonstrative-personal pronoun, the spelling of the 
Masc. does not. The most important difference is the use of SU 
with the nouns , as in ma-faa-ar-su ^ and of SUi with the verbs , as in 
a-ga -ma-lu -su . . 

In spite of the many spelling variations it is clear that the 
forms and the spellings of the pronominal suffixes go together with 
those of the demonstrative-personal pronoun. 

The determinative-relative pronoun differs both in form and 
writing from the demonstrative-personal pronoun discussed above. 
The following chart may help in visualizing the differences: 

Dem. -Pers. Det. -Rel. 

Sg. m. 


su, (su, su) 

su (su) 


su, -a 





su 1( -a (su-a) 








PI. m. 


#su, -nu 

su-ut (su-ut) 




su, -ni-ti 
su, -nu-ti 










On the basis of the spellings discussed above we can draw the 
following conclusions: 

The determinative-relative pronoun is regularly written with 
the SU, SI, SA signs, clearly expressing the s^ sibilant. 

The demonstrative-personal pronoun is normally written with 
the SUi sign in the Masc, but with the SI sign in the Fern. Since 
the SI sign regularly stands for the s^ - sibilant, we might be 
inclined to assume that SU, also stands for the same sibilant. The 
writing with SUt instead of 3U would then have to be considered the 
result of a -scribal convention intended to distinguish graphically 
the demonstrative -personal pronoun from the determinative-relative 
pronoun. Another possibility is to recognize the existence of a 
sibilant Si , expressed by the sign SUt (and other signs discussed 
above on pp* 37ff«) and originally corresponding to the Arabic d. 
The interchange of the SUi and SI signs in the demonstrative- 
personal pronoun would then mean that by the time of the Sargonic 
Period the original phoneme Sj had begun to coalesce with the 
phoneme su p. 

5. Possessive Pronoun 

The only example of this pronoun occurs in the PN (Li-bu-us -)NI- 
a-um , in which the second element may represent ni-a-um "ours 11 or 
x-a-um "mine." 

6. Interrogative Pronouns 

We have man , manum "who?" and min, minum "which?/ 1 "what?," 
For man(um) in Sargonic cf,: Ha-an( -ba-lum-^a-gan) "who is without 
Dagan?" and Ma-num(-a-]ai) "who is my brother?," In Ur III: Ma- 
an(-gi-ir) "who is the opposition?, 11 Ma-an( -ki-be-li) "who is like 
my lord?," Ma-num(-ki- Sul-gi) "who is like Sulgi?." For min (urn) 
in Sargonic cf. : Mj-(suj -a)_ "what is it?," mi-num ( da-ap- r u-us ) 
"why did you withhold?," mi-num ( u-la a -bi* ad-da ) "why are you not 
my father?." In the Gen. there is one example of ( a-tum) mi-nim 
"why?;" in the Ace, mi -nam ( da-mu-ur-ma ) "how is it that you saw?." 
In Ur III: Kd-n(a-ar-ni) "what is m^ sin?," 

The adverb mis , composed of mi + is, may occur in the unique 
ra ML-is(-da-ti) , possibly to be translated as "where is my beloved?" 

In the PN's (j-lf-)me-sum , (i-nin-)me-sum the second element 
could be interpreted as misum < mi + is .+ urn "why?," but this 

interpretation does not fit well in the PN ( Li -bur-) me~sum . Cf. 
also Mi?-sum ( [a]s-tu-ru ) . 

The old forms man , min show neither case endings nor mimation, 
and represent the only examples in Akkadian in which animate subjects 
are distinguished from inanimate subjects (like Latin quis , quid ). 

I write manum and minum since it is unknown whether these forms 
had already become mannum and mfnum in Old Akkadian as they did in 

7. Indefinite Pronoun 

The indefinite pronoun is based on the interrogative pronoun* 
The two forms exist: manama, i.e. mana + ma, for animate subjects 
as in ma-na-ma (MJ- mi u-sa-za-ku-ni ) "whoever destroys my name,* 1 
and mammana , i.e. man (a) + mana , as in ma-ma -na (DUL sui -^ u-a-fea* 
ru) "whoever changes this statue." For inanimate subjects we have 
mimma , as in mlm-ma ( u-la a-ga-bi ) "I shall say nothing, 11 with a 
pronominal suffix mim-ma-su , Mim-ma-sa . 


1. Declension 




Masc. Norn. 






bell/5 ' 






Fern. Norn. 













Gender , 

As in later periods , the noun has two genders: Masc. and Fern. 
The Fern, is indicated by the suffix -a turn , as in belatum (writ- 
ten Pe-l a -ti--su , Ur III), tir^atum (written ti-ir-^a-ti in Constr. 

St.), Ba-r£-za-tum (PRS) , Ga-mi-a-tum (KM'), Ri-ba-tum , Ri-ba-tim 
(R\B?), Ri-jaa-tum (Ur III, R^S), which can be contracted to -turn , 
as in tirtum (written ti-ir-ti in the Gonstr. St.), naplaqtum (writ- 
^ en na-ap-la-aq-tum ) , fla-na-^an-tum , Ar-bi-tum (V^k^j Ur HI), ba~ 
ti-tum (PT°-). The PI, Fan. always ends y in -atum , as in ki-ib-ra- 
turn , na-al-ba-na -turn , gu-zi-a-tum , mas-li-a-tum , na-ap-la~ga- 
tum, ze-nu-a-tum (meaning unknown), zu-ra-tum /surratum / (copy), 
Gen * ztt-ra^JM (copy), sa-tu-a-tim /sadwatim /, ki-ib-ra-tim . 

The abstract formation is -utum in the Sg. , as in sarrutum 
(written sar-ru-dam , Sar-ru-zu- , etc) 3 kedutum (written ge-du-^ut- , 
Ur III), and ^uatum in the PI., as in issi 3 akkuatum (written PA.TE. 
Sl -gu-a-tim , copy). 

Some nouns having Masc. suffixes are Fern, in gender, such as 
umraanum "army* (as in ga-ga-^ad umnna-nim si-a-ti , Der), nisu 
"people" (as in ni-se .... sa-at DN, copy), #alappum "ship 1 ' (as in 1 
MA sa-at 30 (GDR) TA), *eqlum "field" (as in GAN sa-at GN). 

b. Member 

The declension of the Sg. in the Old Akkadian Period corre- 
sponds to that of OB, 

The declension of the PI. shows variation only in the Gen. of 
Masc* nouns, where the ending -I alternates with -e. Cf . , on the 
one hand, is-gi-ni , ba-ni-su , ab-bi , ki-is-za-bi , ik-rJL-bi-su , dub- 
bi-su-ni , SDKKAL-H, dir-ku-lx 5 ki-sa-ma-ri , sar-ri-su-nu , sar-ri- 
si-in , LUGAL-ri, fau-rx , ma-gi , is-bi-gi , GIS.TUKUL -gi-su (copy). 
Ifote also sa-tu-i ( Lu-lu-bi-im ) in broken context (MDP II p. 53) 
and ma-£ in Ur III. On the other hand, cf. da-me , SAM-me, us-se .... 
(contrasted with Us -si- /Ussi/ tt my foundation"), ni-se. . in original 
inscriptions; NAR-e, ur-ri tam-feL-e , URUDU-e, M/C.LAg, -e, in 7 
.... nma-e (MDP XIV 90 rev.) in texts from Susa; KAS+X-e (RA IX 3k 
i), GIS.IA-e (M xxvi), sa-tu-e in late copies. Note, however, that 
in the Sargonic system of writing, syllables ending in ^ and those 
ending in -e are not consistently distinguished. 

Some nouns are commonly attested in the PI. : si'mu "price" 
(written SJM-mu, S^M-me), damu "blood" (written da-me ),, kaspu 
"money" (written Gas-bu-sa ) beside kaspum "silver," panu "face" 

( written ba-ni ) , kigru "hire 11 (written ki-i$-ri-su ), ma^u "water" 
(written ma-ji in Ur III), and many nouns of the iqtilu formation, 
such as ikribu "prayer" (written ik~n-bi-su , Acc» Pl»)j iptiru 
"redemption maney" (written Ip-ti-ru , but also Ip-ti-runim ), iskinu 
a certain kind of additional payment (written is-ki-nu-su , is-gi- 
ni), ispiku "(grain) accumulation(s)" (written is-bi-ku , is-bi-gi ) . 

The Du. is used regularly in Old Akkadian, both in the Masc. 
and the Fern. Exceptions are 2 ga-nu-nu , 2 ki-Ii-lum , 2 ma-ki-lum , 
3 mu-sa-lum , all in lists of objects ^ v 

Norn. Masc: 2 la-afc-ma-an , 2 gu-da-na-an , 2 a-za-^an , 
[2] bi-ra-da-an , [2] du-sa-an , 2 G * s zu-zu-la~an . With pronominal 
suffixes : kab-Ia-su , sa-ap-da-su , i-da-su , I-da-sa . Note that 
nouns denoting parts of the body are of Fem. gender* In the Constr. 
St.: 2 DUMU-a PM, 2? PN's sa-ti-da .... (SDD) . 

Ace. Masc: za-al-mi-in an-ni^in . With pronominal suffixes: 
e-ni-a , -e-ni-sa , -e-ni-su . 

Norn. Fern, with pronominal suffix and in the Pred. St.: a-faa- 
da-ki sa^lim-da "thy two sisters are well." In the Constr. St.: 
ma-fai-ir-da KUG.BABBA8 "(two women,) receivers of silver.' 1 Cf. 
also si-ta i-za-ab-ta-an /sitta i(n)sabtan/ in Capp. (BIN VI 


(The Ace. Fem. can be reconstructed on the basis of %aH&i-ti-in 

(beside ga~ki-a-tim ) ina Capp. text discussed by Lewy in Orient. 

n.s. XIX °f . and of ku-u-e-en a-ni-ti-in "these two vessels" (beside 

ku-u*mm a-ni-tum ) in an unpublished Capp. text, Assur photo No. 


c. Case %ndings 

The use of case endings with common nouns is fully standardized 
in the Old Akkadian Period, following the same rules as in classical 
OB. But there are certain cases occurring in Akkadian PN f s and Akka- 
dian loan words in Sumerian which need further discussion. 

We find a total lack of case endings in the following divine 
names: Adad in (En-ni-m) a-da-ad , ( I-ti-n) a-da^ad , (Ze-l)a-da^ad 5 
etc. (all Ur III); Pagan in ( ir-am- r Da-gan , Lia-gan( -ri-i-su) , 


etc; Qanls in (ito-bi-iq -) &a-ni-is , (Ri-im-)Ba-ni-is , etc., from 
PS$ prim in (Pu\aA-) lJa-ri--im 5 (M^ ja^Ha , etc., from JJRM; 
II in (ib-lul-)II , (iS-dup-)ll , (Is-lul-)ll , (Ra-b:{-)II , il(-be-l:Q , 
IlH^gi)., etc., from ^L; Illat in (i-la-Ul-la-at , (S-la -) d Il- 
at, (Be-Ii-) Il-la~at , etc., from \LL; perhaps Isar in I-sar(-li- 
tau-ur) 5 I-sar(-raHma-as) (Ur III), I-sarC-be-li) , I-sar-a-foi , etc., 
from 3 ? SR; Laban in (Su-)La-ba-an (Ur II), from LBN; Lafonat in 
(Dan-)La-ab"[ma"at] and (Dan-)Ia-ma-at (both Ur III), from LgM; 
Malik in (Pft.SA-^a^k, (ir-ara^ ^ Ma-lik , (il-su-)Ma-lik , etc., 
from MLK; Falifa in (Ku-ru-ub-QBa-iib , (Ur- ^a-ljfe (Ur III), etc., 
from Pig; Rasap in (I-zi-)Ra-sa-apI , from RSP; perhaps Sikkur in 
Zi-gur(-i-li) and Zi-kur(-i-li) (Ur III) , Zi-gur( ~mu-bx) 3 from SKR; 
Salim in (l-gu-)Sa-Iim , (M£~) Sa-lim , etc., from SLM; Samas or 
Samus in (PU.SA-) Sa-mu-^s , from SMS; Sullat in i Su-ul-la-at , etc. 
(Ur III), perhaps from SLL. To this list divine names of unknown 
or doubtful etymology should be added: Apife in (A-bi-)A-bi-ifa , 
(PU,SA-) A-bi-ik (both Ur III); Asar in (A-li-)A-sar , (A-ba-)A-sar , 
etc. (Ur III) j Assur in A-sur ( -DI NGIR) ; Sstar in Es, -dar ; Slag * 
or Hag in j /B-la-ag(-nu-d.d) 9 ( Nu-id-) I -la-ag , etc.; Padan (PSarg.) in 
(ARAD-)Ba-dan, (i-sar-QPa-da-an , etc. (both Ur III); Pafaar in (A- 
^u-)Ba-^ar (Ur III; cf . on this divinity Borger, Orient, n.s. XXVI 
7, reading ^afaar ) ; Sin in Sn.ZU and once d ZU.EN (in UET I 11); 
Tibar or Dibar in (Dan-)Ti-bar , (Su-)Ti-bar (both in HSS X). Regular 
case endings occur only in the divine names Anum in (Su-)A-num and 
(Su-)JUnu-um , Antum in (Su-) An- turn , Slum, Hum in (Ur -) HS-ium (Fara 
III 35 vi) etc., I sum in (Ur-)I-sum , (Sum-su-jl-sum , etc. By far 
the largest number of divine names up to and including the Sargonic 
Period are written without any case endings. 

The divine names with no case endings have been explained by 
some scholars, such as Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden 
Grammatik der semi tischen Sprachen II 35, as Vocatives in form. 
Plausible as it may appear for divine names, this explanation can- 
not be accepted, because forms without endings appear also in geo- 
graphical names, names of months, and common words which could not 
possibly be explained as Vocatives. 

Of the 12 names of months (cf. the list in MAD I pp. 233f.) as 
many as 8 have forms without any endings: Ba-fai-ir from BgR, 


Ga-da-fadl , ga-lu(l)^at 5 ga-ni-it and ga-ni-i , I-ba-»sa-as (perhaps 

a verbal form), I-r^-sa-at from ' RS, Sa-ni-i from SN 3 , and Za-lul 

from §LL* The other names ( Gi-um , Ik-zum , Za-lil-tum , and Ti-ru ) 

appear with full endings and with or without mimation. 

Among geographical names without endings we have: Apija (dis- 

v * KT — — — 

cussed under divine names) , A-sur (discussed under divine names), 

Ba-ba^az K I (Ur III), Ba-sa-ar^ , Ga-ga-ba-an K I , gi-bi-la-at KI and 

gi-bi-la-ti (Ur III), Mas-gan , and Padan (discussed under divine 

names) . 

There are a number of royal names belonging to the 1st Dynasty 
of Kish which appear without endings. As quoted from Jacobsen, 
The Sumerian King List pp. ?8ff., they are: Zu-ga-gi, -dp , Ba-Ii-i& » 
Za-mug , Ti-iz-gar , and others. Outside of the king list we have 
A-sa-ri-id , Ba-ba-az , II-la~at , and Da-Iim /Talim / in Sargonic and 
Za-rx-iq in Ur III. Here we may cite also such common Sargonic 
names as A-bil ( -Gl) , Su-ru-us (-Gl) , and once Li-da-at ( -Gl) . Also 
passim (Ar-si-)afa in Sargonic and Ur III. 

Finally we should refer to Akkadian words which passed into 
Sumerian in the form &A.ZI, gA.ZI.IN "ax," SA.TU "mountain," SAM 
"price," SUM "garlic," ^A.G&R "district," all without any case 
endings. See also p. 5. 

Beside loan words without any case endings there is an even 
larger number of words which passed from Akkadian to Sumerian in a 
form ending in -a, such as DAM.gA.RA (MjJR) , DU.TI.DA (DDN?), GU.ZI. 
DA (KS> 7 ), QA. ZI.NA, beside gA.ZI and gA.ZI.IN (8§N?), MA.DA (M 3 T), 
MA.NA (MM 3 ?), MAS.GAJNA (SKN), PA.NA (BM>?), all attested before 
the Ur III Period. See also p. 5. 

Among the geographical names we can note only A-za-ra , It-gur- 
da KI , and Si-jna-na (HTC 3hl; RA XIX 2*3 No. XCVIII) beside Simanum 

Among the divine names there is a large number of forms ending 
1x1 ZS* such ^ A P~ ra (^.c; 1 ^)* Da-da (O^D), and probably Ab(b)a , 
Afra , Ela , and Labba discussed below pp. 147ff. Many more divine 

names are without a clear Semitic etymology or are of Sumerian origin, 

such as ^ ; A-a, Q A-ba, , a AI-la (Ur III), Ba-ba (Ur III), E-a, d Gu- 
la, ^ir-ra, ^ Is-fra-ra , ^ d) Ki-za (Ur III), Ma-ma, Na-na, d Nanna, 
^isaba , Nu-mus-da , Su-da, and Za-ba , -ba ,. 

The ending --a is well represented among the PN f s. Cf. e.g. 
j-zi-na beside I-zi-num , Du-ma-ga beside Dul -ma-kum (Iraq VI 10 No. 
12), Nu-ni-da beside Ifa-ni-tum , Si-ni-da (Ur III) beside Si-ni-tum , 
Si-ni-tum, Su, -ni-da beside Su-ni-tum , Su-ni-tum , also Ar-na-ba , 
Bu-zi-na (Ur III), Dub-si-ga , gu-zi-ra , Nam-ra-za , Na-ga-da 5 Na-gi- 
da (Ur III), and many others. 

In the pages above were listed forms either without any endings 
or with the ending -a. They are not found in the Akkadian language, 
but in the Semitic loan words in Sumerian and in Akkadian proper 
names, such as personal, divine, geographic, and month names. The 
occurrence of loan words without any endings or with the ending -a 
in Sumerian can be explained most plausibly as borrowings from a 
Semitic language or dialect having a declension without fully devel- 
oped case endings. The occurrence of such forms in Akkadian proper 
names must be taken as part of the structure, not of the Akkadian 
language, but of the Akkadian proper names. Pull parallels can be 
found in the Amorite of the OB Period, where too forms without any 
endings or with the ending -ji occur in proper names, such as personal, 
divine, and geographical names, but not in the Amorite language. 
Cf. the full discussion in my forthcoming "The Language of the 

For the Pred, St. ending in -a, cf. pp. 146ff . 

For the form ma-j^i-ra , cf. p.l52f. 

Outside of the case endings -urn, -im, -am there are still two 
endings which remain to be discussed: -is for the Dat. and -urn for 
the Loc. 

The Dat, suffix -is occurs frequently with nouns forming ele- 
ments of PM ! s, such as Es, -dar-is( -da-gal) , A-ba, -is (-da-gal) , Be- 
ll -is (-da-gal) , Sar-ri-is (. -da-gal) "rely upon Estari , etc.," Nin- 
lil-is(-gi-in) "he is righteous unto Ninlil," PU.SA~is( - Tia-gan) 
"unto the shelter of Dagan" (Ur III), j-li-is(-i-sar) "he is right- 
eous unto his god/ 1 (gu-zu-us-) za-ar-ra-ri-is "think (remember, or 
the like) ...." (Ur III). 

This suffix also occurs with infinitives, as in fau-zu-zi-is 
"for reckoning," ma-ra-is "for fattening," e-ra-si-is "for planting," 
na-da-ni-is "to give" (Ur III), gu-du -si-is "to purify?," 


With adjectives and participles this suffix acquires an adver- 
bial meaning, as in da-ni-is "strongly," Ga-li-is (-pfc) , etc. 
"fully," gi-ni-is "truly," I-sar-ds ( - (, EN. ZU) "rightly" (Ur III), 
Mi-it-fcar-is "correspondingly"; it is even used with words func- 
tioning as prepositions in mafa-riu-is (DN) "in front of DN" (copy). 
Cf. also is-ti-ni-is "together" (copy), mis "where?" in the PN M- 
is(-da-ti) , to be translated perhaps as "where is my beloved?," 
possibly i-ti-is "together," and *istis , discussed below. 

The suffix -is is found also with pronominal suffixes, as in 
a-sa-ri-su /asarissu/ "to its place," ga-ti-is-su "to his hand," 
(ga-ti-) i-li-su "he rejoices in his god," ( I-s ar -) ma-ti -is -su "he 
is righteous unto his land." In Ur III we find writings with ZU, 
as in (i-sar-)a-li-is-zu "he is righteous unto his city," (^u-S&F. 
ZU Hau^dr-) ma-ti -is -zu "Su-Sin is light unto his land," (DOG-) bx-ti- 
is-zu "he is good unto his house." In (DM a-li-ik ) mafa-n-su "DK T , 
who goes in front of him" (copy), mafe-rx-tsu] ( u-sa-ri-[bu] ) "they 
brought before him" (copy), and ma -a&^r i -^u-nu ( iq-bi ) "he said in 
front of them," it is impossible to decide whether the form before 
the pronominal suffixes is maferis or the adverbial mafari (= ma^ri ). 
The Sargonic example u-me-is-sa occurs in a difficult context and 
its translation as "in her day," "then she .... " is therefore not 

Beside the forms with -is , listed above, there are also forms 
^^k ,'" u ? > as in z |f ^k*"**** ( - T)a-gan) 3 Ze-lu-us (-DUG) 3 Ri-muHis , (Ma- 
an-)ki-im-lu-us (GML?), flz-ne-nu-us (Ur III), Ml -lu-us-sa , Ml -lu-sa , 
MI -lu-su , Pu-us-sa , Pu-His(-ki-in) (Ur III) , Pu-us ( -GAL) , Pq-^uz-ru- 
sa, PIJ.SA -ru-sa , La-mu-sa , La-mu-sa (Ur III), fll-tu-sa /ldussa / # * 
This suffix is generally believed to be derived from -urn (or simply 
^om ), assimilated to -us when followed by a suffix beginning with 
s. Cf. e.g. von Soden, ZA XLI 90ff. This may very well be true, 
although the possibility that -us developed secondarily from -is 
cannot be simply brushed aside. For the change i > u when followed 
by s, cf. above p. 126, and many examples in Gelb, OIP XXVII p. 60, 
anc ^ sepissu , sepussu , arkanis , arkanus , panuska , bituska (von Soden, 
op. cit. pp. °5, 12ltf.). 

Such forms as Gas-bu-sa , Ip-ku-sa , Ip-ku-sa , Ni-id-nu-ga super- 
ficially resemble forms like Ml -lu-us-sa , Pu-uz-ru-sa (discussed 

above) , but the two groups ought to be sharply differentiated, 
Wiile the latter stand for gillussa , Puzrussa , the former express 
Kaspusa , Ipqusa , Nidnusa , all PI. forms with a Sing, meaning. Some 
forms such as Rirrais may conceivably be explained as Rimus(u) , but 
there is no clear evidence in the Sargonic Period that the pro- 
nominal suffix su occurring with nouns could be abbreviated to s. * 

The Log. suffix -urn occurs in the name I-tum(-be-li) "in the 
strength of my lord"; the interpretation of i-tum as I*>c. is 
favored by the occurrence of fll-tu-sa /idussa/ (see above), I-du-a 
(Ur III), j-du-na (Ur III), ( U-bur-) i-du-ni (Ur III), but (Sn.ZU-H^ 
di (Ur III) which means simply "Sin is my strength." Also the names 
En-num(-j-li) , Sn-um (- d EM,ZU) (Ur III), Sn-mun( -jg^^dar) (Ur III), 
could well be translated as "in (« by) the grace of i^ god," etc., 
yielding a Loc. ennum ( D -M) . The same case is represented in the 
formation of the prepositions balum "without," adum "until," istum 
"from." Cf. (Ma-an-) ba-Ium ( - ^a-gan) "who is without Dagan?"$ a-tum 
( mi-nim ) "until what?" or "why?"; is -turn (GN) "from GN." The lat- 
ter form occurs in the well-known royal name of the Sargonic Period, 
(Ma-an-) is- tu-su (passim), spelled also ( Ma-ni-)is-ti-su (Speleers, 
CIMC p. 116 No. 594), ( Ma-an-) is-t Ci-su3 (text collated, showing 
a much better tEiJ than copied in OIP XIV 114 rev.), all in Sargonic; 
( Ur- wa-an-) is-di ( n) -su and ( Ma-an- )is-ti-su in Ur III; (Ma-an-) is- 
du-uz-zu in Elam (MDP III p. 42); ( Ma-ni- ) is-ti-is-su (OECT II 1 vi) 
and (Ma-ni-) is-te-su (PBS XIII 1 vii) in OB; and ( Ma-na- ) as- tu-su 
in an Otf liver omen from Mari (RA XXXV 41). Thus both iste(s)su and 
istu(s)su must mean "with him," furnishing evidence of the gradual 
confusion of the Dat. and Loc. suffixes, which began in the Sargonic 
and developed to a larger degree in the subsequent periods. 

For other cases of the Loc. ending, cf. (A-ti-)ma-tum "until 
when" (Ur III), i-nu (.... ip-te-u ) "when .... he opened" or i-nu-su 
(•••• &b-ni ) "then •••• I built." 

The interpretation of Da-da-i-lum ZE-LIM ZU.EN (UET I 11) as 
Da-da-i-lum ze-lum ZU.EN "D. under the shelter of Sin" by Lands- 
berger, OLZ XXXIV 127, is doubtful, since one would not expect to 
find LIM with the value of lum side by side with LUM = lum . Further- 
more, the two signs after Da-da-i-lum , may be read not as ZE LIM, but 
as AB+AS IGI; cf. SAKI pp. 46 vi 5% 52 x 36 and DP 159 v 1. Thus 
now also Sollberger in Iraq XXII 85» 


The combination is + urn occurs in ki-ri-sum "to the orchard," 
which seems to occur parallel to ki-ri-is in the same incantation 
from Kishj [m]i?^sum , -me -sum "why?, 11 if this word could be safely 
derived from mi + is + um; u-uml -sum "daily" (copy) parallel to ga- 
ga-ar-sti-um < *qaqqar-( i) s -urn in a unique example from among the 
Cappadocian texts (BIN IV 126 rev.). 

The combination is + am is found in u-mi-sa-am "day by day," 

d. Mimation 

Mimation is used regularly following the same rules as those 
in classical OB. 

Lack of mimation can be observed only in PN's, such as I-sa-ru 
(beside I-sa-ru-um ) , jr-a-mu (beside ir^a-mu-um ) , A-^u( -DINGIR) , 
(A-li-)a-fcu , (Sa-Lun-ja^u , Sar-ru (-Gl) 5 Sar-ru(-ai-si-in) 9 (Ar- 
si-)a-^g, A-faa(-ar-6i) , A-&u( -li-bur-ra) . Among GN's we may note 
Mas-ga-ni ; among MN's A-ki-ti and Ti-ru ; among DN*s garmu and 
gas^aru (§RSR) . In Sumerian we find se-ir~gu and ni-is-ku as loan 
words from Akkadian. Finally we may refer to MAJt.TU possibly from 
* Mtrtu(m ). 

2. Construct State 

Sg. Nom.: Ga-la-«ab(-B-a) , Li-bx-it(-£-li) 5 Me-kir ( -DINGIR. 
DINGIR) , Nu-ur(-Es t -dar) , be-al (dOl) , n a-e ([i]r-tim) , Ni-se-. t-e- 
ni-su) /Nisi^(-enxsu)/ , Ni-wa-ar( -Me-ir) (Ur III) , A-ma-«at( -E-a) 
(Ur III), Si->ra-at (- d EN.2U) (SMl), Si-ma-at(- d jr-r a) (S D ? M, Ur 
III), Se-la-at ( -Te-ir-ra-ba-an) (Ur III), ge-du-ut ( ^AMAR-^. ZU) 
(Ur IH) are all regular. 

With jju we find (l) bi-ra-fau (SiJm), (l) su-ga-nu (KUG.BA3BAR), 
(1) DU G na-za-bu (NI.DUN), Bn-bu (-DINGIR) , Su-mu(-E-a) . 

With -d we find (Sks. DUMU) da-ti ( d En-l£l ) > Pi(-q-lf) , (i- 
da-)bx(-x-li) . 

Sg. Gen.: ( a-na ) na-»a-si (PN) LUGAL-ri (GN), (in) £-ti (TO), 
(in) ba-ri-ti (G^u GN 2 ), (in) si-dp ~ri (DN) (copy), (in) mas-ga- 
ni (PA.TS.5l), (Bi-in-) ga-li ( -LUGAL-ri) , (in) bu-ti (GN), (in) 

sa-la-ti (GN), (PN GiR.NITAJi) ma-ti (GN), (sa-tu-e ) a-bar-ti ( ti-a- 
am-tim), (LUGAL GN u) ba^ -u-la-ti* (DN) , (in) GIS.TUKUL-U (DN) mu- 
sa-ar-bi-i ( sar-ru^-ti-su ) (copy), (P^ DUMU PN 2 ) a-bi (URU NIM ) . 
In Ur III: ([ a-na ]) ne-si (RN) , ( i-na ) ti-ir-ti (DN), ( ma-ki-ig) 
ga-ga-ad um-ma-an (GN) (Der), ( a-na ) ba-la-&fr (PN). 

Sg. Ace: na-^a^as (LUGAL), su-Ium (&) , za-lam (PN) , ba-la-ag 

With -i we find ma-na-ma MU-mi (NS. . ... u-sa*~za-ku-*na) ( copy) . 

PI. Nom.: he-lu (GAN), be-lu ( ga-da-tim ) , is-bi-ku (PN) , kap- 
dur-ru (ZID.SK), nam-fra-ru (ZID.SE), na-ma.Hi (SS) , ma-fai-ru (KUG. 
BABBAR), ga-gi-ru (PN), ,za?-bi-lu (....), na-*ak-da-ma-at ( ap-tim ). 

PI. Gen.: ( a-na ) SiiM-me (PN), (in) dub-ga-ti (E) , (GAN su) 
kir-ba-ti (GN), ( a-ti-ma ) fau-ri (KUG), (a-na) is-gi-ni (g£n). 

PI. Ace: AB+AS -bu-ut /sibut / ( si-da-ti[m] ) , da-11 ( na-ra^ab- 
ti-su ) (copy), zi~ra~at /girrat / ( ni-se ....) (copy). 

Du. Nom.: (2) DUMU-a (PN) , (2? PN's) sa-ti-da ( g[u]-zi-[im]? ) 3 
ma-bi-ir-da (KUG, BABBAR). 

Discussion . The Constr. St. forms of the Nora, are identical 
with those of the Ace. 

The Constr. St. in the Gen. ends regularly in ^i. Only the 
case of (SU.NIGIN 10 GURUS SES) be-lu (oh) in the MO is difficult 
to explain, since the expected form is bell (GAN). One might be 
inclined to conclude that the writing SES be-lu represents a com- 
pound a^-belu or the like. The case of ( is -turn ) da-ar (for da-ri ) 
si-kii-ti ( ni-se ..-) (copy) and ( a-na ) mu-uk (for mu-jai ) (SA.DUGi ) 
(CM) can be explained as OB writing. In the Ur III Period, as 
against one example in -i, there are two others in which the Gen. 
form corresponds to that of Nom.-Acc. 

3. Predicate State 

The standard form of the Pred. St. in Sg. corresponds to that 
of the Constr. St. in Nom.-Acc: (E-a-)ra-bi , (E-a-)dan , (E-a-)sa- 
tu, (ttN,ZU-) a-ar , (Es > -dar-)da-na-at , (Es » -dar-Qra-^bi-^at , (Es t - 
dar-) ma^al-ga-at , (Es i -dar-) sa-tu . In PI. Masc. we find, e.g., 
(j-lu-)da-nu and (j-lu-)dam-ku . 

A form of the Pred. St. ending in -a is found only in personal 
names. Since this form has hardly been touched upon in A ssyrio logical 
literature it may be necessary in the following to discuss it more 

thoroughly, bringing in, whenever necessary, materials from areas 
other than that of Old Akkadian, 

While the name written (Su-)EN-li, (Su > *)be-li means "he is my 
lord, 1 ' the name written (Su» -)be-la , (Su-)be-la can hardly mean any- 
thing else than "he is lord." In addition we note (Si-) be -la "she 
is lord." 

Similarly we have (Su-)da-ti "he is my beloved," but (Su-) da-da 

"he is beloved" and (Si-) da-da "she is beloved," Observe also a DN 

d v 
( Si-) da-da (Deimel, PB Nos. l$lk and 3197), occurring in later 

periods, and the Capp, name (Zu-e-)ta-ta , interpreted as Sue(n)- 

dada "Sin 1st der Onkel" by J. Lewy, ZA XXXVIII 2hh n. 1* 

Beside the Sargonic (Su-) la-pi "he is my lion," comparable with 
the OB (l-r2u-)la-bi (TCL I 183 rev.) "his arm is my lion," we have 
in the Sargonic Period (%-)la-ba, (KA-) la-fba1? , La-ba(-U) (if $ 
is a DN), (Sar-ru-)la-ba with the meaning "DN (or the like) is lion," 
etc. In the Fern, there is (i-nin-) la-ba , ( Es i -dar-) la-ba , (Si-)la- 
ba, but also (Si-)la-ba^at , the latter two comparable with DN written 
r Si-) la-bat (Deimel, PB No. 3207), ( ^i-)la-ba-at ( op. cit . No. 
3206), and (Si-) la-ba (Weidner, AOF XIII U6 ii 6) of later periods. 

As against the above cited examples of -la-ba or La-ba- in the 
Pred. St., we find the same forms used as subjects. Cf. (A-mar-) La- 
ba "see, La-ba l," (it-be-) La-ba " La-ba has come up," both in Sar- 
gonic, La-ba(-na-da) " La-ba is praised" in Cappadocian (Gelb, OIP 
XXVII p. 31 n. 2, where this name was interpreted as Laba(n)-naMa ) , 
La-ba( -ak-ka-si-i[ d] ) " La-ba has arrived" in OB (Porada, CPML No. 
\hO) = La-ba(-ka-si-id) in MB (Stamm, ANG p. 132, parallel to d AMAR. 
UD(- -ka -si-id) , ibid.). I do not know. how else to interpret the use 
°£ -ka-ba or La-ba- as a subject, but by taking it to represent a 
DN ending in -^ of the form discussed above pp. lWf. In the Sar- 
gonic names (Be-li-) la-ba , (DINGIR-) la-ba , (DINGIR -su-) la-ba , and 
La-ba (-DINGIR) the elements -la-ba or La-ba- can be explained either 
as a Pred. St. or as a DN. Finally there is an Ur III PN (Da-a- 
ga -) la-ba with an unexplained first element. 

In all the above cases, as well as in the Cappadocian (Es t - 
dar-) la-ba and perhaps (Su-) la-ba (Gelb, OIP XXVII p. 31) and OB 
La-ba(-DINGIR) (UST V 1^8:5) and La-ba(-i-lum) (No. 171:5, 6), 
the spellings can be explained as forms of labbum "lion" (or 

labbaturo "lioness") with double b. Only in the Amorite of Mari 
does a form with w occur, as in ( Sa-du-um- ) la-bu-a (AOr XVIl/l p. 
329) ♦ beside those without it, as in (Sa-du-)la-ba (Syria XX 109), 
(Sa-du-un-)la-ba (TCL XXIII 33 rev. 3, 4, 11), (Sa-du-um-)la-ba 
(TCL XXIV 46;8), (Sa-du-um-Ola-bi (Syria XIX 119), and (Su-nm-) la- 
ta (TCL XXVII 73 rev. 6). 

In the following names A-ba- or -a-ba can be explained as Pred. 
St.: A-bat-Sa-di) , A-ba (- d UTU) (Up III), (Eg , -dar?-)a-ba . In the 
names A-ba (-GAL) (Ur III), A-ba (-Gl), A-ba(-na-da ), A-ba ( -na-ak-tum) 
(Ur III), (Nu-ur-)A-ba (Ur III), A-ba- or -A-ba is a DN of the type 
discussed above 'pp* 14 If. In the Sargonic names A-ba(-DINGIP), 
(DINGIE-) a-ba , and (DINGIR- su-)a-ba and the Ur III names A-ba^e - 
Ix) and (Su-)a-ba the element A-ba- or -a-ba may represent either a 
Fred. St. or a DN. In favor of taking -a-ba in (Su-)a-ba as a DN 
cf * (Su-)Ab-ba (Ur III) and Ab-ba(-ga-aa) (Ur III), possibly con- 
taining Abba, the name of a male deity, as evidenced by such Amorite 
names from Mari as (l[a3-ar-ib-) d Ab-Cb3a (TCL XXVIII 181: 10), (Ki- 
bi-ir-) Ab-ba (BA L 62 n. 11), and from Alalakh, as (Id-di-na-)ab-ba 
(JCS VIII 22 No. 2?1:5), while Aba is the name of a female deity, 
as can be established on the basis of A-ba( -ri-mi-it ) (PBS Xl/l p. 
60, OB), A-ba(-ri-sa-at ) (ibid.), and ( Ma-din- )A-ba ( op. cit . p. 


Also in the Sargonic names (DINGIft-Jajja, (DINGIR-su^a^gL, 
(j-lum-)a-:ba , i* cannot be decided Aether to take -a-faa as a Pred. 
St. of DN.- 

The element amma occurs in (DING]R-) a-ma "the god is (paternal) 
uncle," beside (Be-li-)a-mi and (Pfl.SA-) a-mi , both Ur III. 

A Pred. St. ela is found in E^la(- Il-at) , while a DN Ela occurs 
in E-la(-ga-ra-ad) (Ur III) and perhaps in E-la ( -DINGIR) , E-la (-Gfot) 
(Ur III) , and I-la(^5a-ma^ar) (Ur III, probably not Akkadian) . 
This interpretation is more plausible than taking E-la as ill < 
-K ilifc , as done by some scholars in the case of Amorite PM f s. 

Two elements very important for the clarification of our prob- 
lem are -na-da and -ra-ma , which can be subjected to various inter- 

The element -na-da, found in Sargonic (LUGAL-) na-da , (Lu-)na-da 
(PBS IX 62:6), and in Ur III (A-ba-)na-da 3 (s-al-)na-da , 

( Sn-ni -) na-da ( n) , ( jr-ra-)na-da/da( n) , rSul~gi -) na^da , occurs also 
in names of identical type in other periods and areas, as- in Elam 
in (I-lu-zu-) na-da (MDP XXIII 226:3), ( I-lu-za-) na-da (MDP XXIV 350 
rev, 8), (^sV -dar-) na-da (MDP XXIV 365:6), (Ku-«bi~) na-da (MDP XXII 
82:1;; XXIV 378 rev. 9), ( fd INNIN.EKIN-) na^da (MDP XXIII 285:9), 
(Sin~) na-da (MDP XXVIII 510: hi 5U3:1|); in Cappadocian (A-sur-) na- 
da, (Be-lum-) na-da , (DINGiffi-) na-da, (Es\ -dar-)na-«da , (ZU.IN-)na-da 
(Stephens, PNC p. 90) ; in OB (E-a-) na-da , (DINGIR-) na-da, (^[M-)na- 
da, (j-ra-)na-da (Ranke, EBPN p, 21*1, misread as -na-id in all 
cases), ( iD-)na-da (Grant in Haverford Symp. p. 2lUt:l5), ( I-lu- 
zu-) na-da (Stamm, ANG p. 202), and several cases with DN's as first 
element (PBS Xl/2 p. 161); in Kassite ( fd IM-) na-da , ( f Sin-)na-da , 
( f UTU-)na-da (Clay, PHCP p. 186); in Middle Assyrian (^M-)na-da 
(Ebeling, MdOG HIl/l p. 9) (At-fai-)na-da ( op; cit . p. 29), ( UTU-)na- 
da ( op. cit , p. 8U), (Sinnie/nii-) na-da ( op, cit , p. 87), The older 
explanation of -na-da by Ungnad in BA Vl/5 p* 126, as a verbal ad- 
jective (Perm,) with a "Hilfsvokal," must be contrasted with that 
of Landsberger apud Gressmann in ZAW XLIV (1926) 302 and Stamm, MG 
pp. 103f., 122, 13U, 202, who interpret -na-da as Impv. "preiset 
(den Sin, etc.)l n Albright in Journal of Biblical Literature LIV 
(1935) 193ff. and Gelb, Purves, MacHae, MFN p. 309, follow Ungnad 
in taking -na-da as a Stative (Perm.), Finally, Goetze in Language 
XX 165 insists on the interpretation of -na-da as Impv. because of 
the occurrence of (Es , -dar-) na-da , where, according to Goetze, the 
adjective should be in Fem. in congruence with Istar, This argue- 
ment is not valid, however, since the name Istar frequently goes 
together in PN's with a verbal form in the Masc. Cf. e.g. (Bs. - 
dar-)ba-li-el and ( Es i -dar-) ba-ni in Cappadocian (Stephens, PNC pp, 
50f>), ( ^stlr^Mna-H-id in NA (Tallqvist, APN p, 107a), and 
many others. 

The strongest evidence in favor of the interpretation of -na-da 
as a Stative is found in the occurrence of (A-&u^)na-da , following 
(A"bu-)na-si and preceding (A-ku-)ma-gir 3 in an unpubl. list of PN's 
of the OB Period (A 7631), Since A -feu- i n a ll three cases is in 
the Norn., -na-da , etc., must be in the Stative. Further evidence 
in favor of the above interpretation comes from the lists of PN ! s 
in which names related in form are listed in groups of three, as 


in (l-s,ur -)DINGIR, (l-igur-)5-a , ( 1-s.ur -) IK or ( Iu-lu-)dan , ( lu- 
lu-Oba-m, ( ^u-lu ^KAM (PBS Xl/l pp. £2f f . In analogy with these 
groups we find ( IM-) ba-ni , ( IM-) na-da , (^M^ na-bir 1 . (var. -na-wi- 
ir) (ibid. p. 7$), and similar groups elsewhere (PBS Xl/2 p. 161). 
In these groupings -na-da is evidently considered a predicate form 
on a line with -ba-ni , -na-wi-ir , etc. 

Another important point of evidence in favor of taking naa-da 
as a Stative results from the interpretation of the OB name ( A-num- 
ma~)na~da (Leemans, SLB l/2 13:U) "Anum is truly praised," parallel 
to such names as ( PI NGIR -ma-) ba-ni , (DINGIR-ma-)SIG--iq, etc., in 
later periods (cf. Tallqvist, APN p. 98a). The reading of the OB 
names ( I-Iu-zu-ma-) na-da and ( I -luHrca-) na-da (PBS Xl/l p. 51 No. 30) 
is not so certain. 

The name (Be -LIM-) na-da is written with the sign LIM three times 
in Cappadocian (TCL XIV Uull; BIN VI 190:3; OIP XXVH note to No. 
7:18). This name should be interpreted as (Be-lum-)na-da , and not 
(Be-lam^-lna-da , since the value luiri is normally expressed by the 
sign LIM in the Cappadocian syllabary, which does not contain an 
independent sign LUM. Even though the sign LIM occasionally has the 
value laiy (cf. von Soden, AS p» 77), it would be against all the 
ratios of probability to find this value attested three times in one 
name. How uncommon this value actually is may be deduced from the 
fact that among dozens of occurrences of 3e-lum- or -Be-lum in 
Cappadocian PN's I could not find one spelled with any other sign 

than IIM. 

As a final point in favor of the interpretation of -na-da as a 
Stative we should mention the Sargonic name (Lu-)na-da , which should 
be translated as "may he be praised," in parallel to (Lu-)sa-lim (Ur 
^1), (Lu-)da-na ( see below), and (Lu-)ba-na (see below). 

The strongest evidence against the interpretation of -na-da as 
a Stative comes from the FN 's ( I-lu-zu-) na-da and ( I-lu-za-) na-da 
cited above, p. 1^9. While the case of Estar in congruence with a 
Stative in either the Fern, or the Masc. can be explained on the 
basis of the double gender of this divinity, the case of Fern, ilussn 
or ilussa construed with a Stative in Masc. would have much wider 
implications, since it would mean that a Stative in the Masc. Sg. 
can occur with subjects both in the Masc. and the Fern, (and presum- 

ably both in the Sg. and the PI,). In favor of this assumption we 
should note the Old Akkadian names (Si-)be-la (beside (Su-)be-la ) , 
(Si -Q da-da (beside (Su-) da-da ), (Si-)la-ba (and (Si-)la-ba-at , beside 
Cappadocian (Su-)la-ba ) , (i-nin-)la-ba , perhaps (Si-)da-b a (beside 
(Su-)da-ba 3 if these names are to be interpreted- as (Si-)fraba , 
(Su-Haba, and not as (Si-Happa 3 , (Su-Happa 3 ) , and perhaps (Si-)wa- 
ra (and (Si-)wa-ra-at (of unknown etymology). Cf. also Dan(-Lafamat) 
in Ur III (above p, 140), and, outside of Old Akkadian, ( Nin- 
gal-)mu-ba-lx-it (YOS V p. 33, 03), ( ^lin-kar-ra-ak^mu-ba-lx-it 
(ibid.), ( ^in-gal-Qga-mil (UST V 871:15, OB), ( d IMIN -La-ga-bi- 
tum-) mu -ba-H-ifr (Leemans, SLB i/l p. 3k 9 OB), and the spelling (!-■ 
lu-au~)na-id in VAS XIII 10U rev, iv 21 and vi 25, OB, written with 
the sign ID, which is apparently different from DA in Id-da-tum in 
iii 16. However, the most important confirmation of the conclusion 
drawn above comes from a consideration of the Mari names (Ma-ma-) a- 
ii-a , (ES i -dar-) a-Ii~a , and (Est -dar-)dam-ga (discussed recently by 
Gelb In EA L [1956] 10), which show quite clearly that a Stative in 
-a can occur with subjects in the Fern, as well as with those in the 


Masc. Cf. also ( Urn-mi-) ba-a-Ia from Alalakh, discussed below p. 

The element -ra-ma begins to appear in the Ur III names ( Sul 

gi-)ra-ma and (i-sar-)raHna , and in view of the parallelism between 
( I-la-ag-) ra-am (Ur III) and ( I-sar-) ra-ma-a s (Ur III) can hardly 
be explained in any other way but as Impv. PI. rajma and Sg, ra 3 am. 
With (l-sar-)ra-ma-as we should compare OB (l-sar-)raHKta-6u and 
(i-sar-)kur-ba-as (Stamm, ANG p. 122). Still, on the basis of the 
parallelism between names composed with -ra-ma, such as ( g»ul- 
gi-)ra--ma , and those with -na-da , such as ( Sul-gi-)na-da, and in 
view of the occurrence of (S-Iu-)ra^Tia , where S-lu- is clearly in 
the Norn. (Gustavs, Die Personennamen in den Tontafeln von Tell 
Ta c annek pp. 36ff.), parallel to (E-lu-)r a-i-ba (ibid,), it may not 
be amiss to suggest that -ra-ma , Like -na-da represents an original 
Stative form which, rarely used in Akkadian as it was, may have been 
secondarily misinterpreted as an Impv. 

Some doubtful occurrences of the Stative in -a are found in the- 
following Old Akkadian FN ! s: (DINGIR-) ba-na perhaps "the god is 
beautiful," (Lu-)ba-na , (L[u]-)ba-na perhaps "may he be beautiful," 


(A,,loi-)ba-na KI (Ur III), (3a-ba-)pa-na (Ur III), Ba-na( -Da-da) (Ur 
"ill),. (i-bi-)ba-na ; ( HJGAL-) da-na perhaps "the king is powerful," 
(lu-) da-na perhaps "may he be powerful"; (A-bu-)gaba , (Mu-ur- 
dj(n)-)gaba (Ur III), (Ku-ur-ti-)ga-ba (Ur III), etc.; (Ab-ba-)ga- 
da (Ur in), (Na-na-)ga-da (Ur III), (Ri-ba-)ga-da (Ur III), ( ^ul- 
gj-da-an-)ga-da (Ur III), (DINGIR-) ga-da (NBC 5378, Ur III, from 
Sollberger), etc.; (DINGIR-) ki-da (CT III 9i, etc., Ur III); (A- 
SI~) ga-la ; (DINGIR-) la-la ; (Su-)da-ba and (Si-)da-ba (if these 
names are to be interpreted as (Su-)fraba and (Si-)fraba , and not as 
(Su-)tappa 3 and (Si-)tappa 3 ); (Si-)wa-ra . From the OB Period note 
( d Ir-ra-) pa-da (MDP XXIII 208 i 9) and (Sar-ri-) pa-da (UST V 199: W. * 

The forms in -a discussed above occur exclusively in PN's, and 
thus form part of the structure, not of the Old Akkadian language, 
but of Old Akkadian PN's. They occur as Pred. St. or Stative with 
nouns, as in E-la(- d Il-at) "Ela is god," (Sq . -)be-la "he is lord," 
with Pass. Part., as in (ir-ra-)na-da "Irra is praised," (Lu-)na-da 
"may he. be praised," and possibly with adjectives, as in (Su-) da-ba 
"he is good," (Lu-) da-na "may he be powerful." The best parallels 
to the predicative -a occurring in Old Akkadian PN's can be found 
in Amorite PN's: Ba-<ak-la ( -DINGIR) /Ba c Ia(-°El) / "°E1 is lord" (RA. 
XLIX 22, Mari), ( f Um-mi-)ba-a-la /( ^mmx-)ba c Ia / (Wiseman, The 
Aialakh Tablets p. l£0, from MB; note the Fern, subject and the 
discussion above p. 151) , §u-r a ( -DINGIR) /gura^-^El)/ " D S1 is rock" 
(RA XLVII 173, Mari; XLIX 29, Mari) , (A-bi^-)§u-ra /( >Abi-)sura / 
"my father is rock" (TCL IV 87:10, Capp.), Ki-na(-i-li) /Kina(- 
3 i.3l) / "my god is just" (RA XLVII 173, Mari), (A-bi-Ha-ba 
/( 3 AbI-)taba / "my father is good" (Wiseman, op. cit . p. 125 passim), 
and Ta-ba ( -DINGIR) /Taba(- :> S1) / « D E1 is good" (Wiseman, op. cit . No. 
60 rev. 11). All these names are discussed in my forthcoming "the 
Language of the Amorites." The possible development from the pred- 
icative -a to the -a of the later Semitic qatala Perfect should be 
briefly noted here. 

In accordance with our conclusions on the Pred. St. in -a, we 
can now interpret the troublesome ma-fcL-ra in the predicative sense 
in the construction Sargon (or Rimus) su DN ma-&L-ra la i-ti-nu-sum 
and translate the latter not as "Sargon (or Rimus), to whom DN did 
not give an adversary" but as "Sargon (or Rimus), to whom DN did 

not give one who is an adversary." Like the Fred. St. in na occurring 
in personal names, the morpheme -a in ma-j^L-ra is Ijjnited to this 
construction and it must be considered as no longer productive in 
the Old Akkadian Period, 

k* Indeterminate State 

This state, attested in such late expressions as ul-tu ri-es 
a-dl ki-it "from beginning to end,** occurs in the Ur III PN's 
(La-)ma-ba-ar "(king or god) without opposition" and ( c ^u- c sN.ZU- 
la-)ma-&a-ar = ( La-)ma-^ar (DeJbrnel, PB No. 1803), parallel to such 
later egressions as ( sar kissati la) sanan "king of the universe, 
without opposition." The same formation occurs in the Sargonic PN 
(La-) ^a-ra-ab , ( La-) a-ra-ab , in (la-)ga-ma-al (metal object, Ur 
III) = ( d La-)ga-*ia~al (Deimel, PB No.- 1790), and in the Ur III PN 
(Su-) La-ta-ra-ak = ( La-) ta~ra-ak and ( La-) ta-rak (Deimel, PB No. 

In the passage u sar-ri-si-in in ga-mi-e u-sa-ri-ib "and he 
brought the kings in a bound state (= in fetters)," it is difficult 
to decide whether in ga-mi-e stands for the Indet. St. in kamij or 
for the PI. kamje . 

In the expression sar in sar-ri "king among kings," sar may 
represent either the Indet. St. or a Constr. St. with the following 
in sar-ri . In favor of the second possibility cf., e.g., the Amorite 
name Bu-nu-tafa-tu^un-I-la 5 Bu^nn-tab-<tu>^an~I-la " the son under 
(the protection of) 3 Ila" (Bauer, OK p. 16). 

5. Nouns Before Pronominal Suffixes 

The endings of the noun before pronominal suffixes correspond 
to those of OB. Note, e.g., MascvSg. Norn. -Ace. from biconsonantal 
nouns: da~ad-ga , I-zu- / issu /, il-su , but A-bu-na , A-bu-ni (Ur 
H^)j A-^u-ni , A-^u-si-na . From triconsonantal nouns: ma-sa-ak-sa , 
s u -lum-ki , z a-la-am-su (Ur III), ze-ra-su? (Lullubum; zera^su is 
like mera^su in Cappadocian, and the vowel a does not represent a 
"Bindevokal," as proposed by von Soden in ZA XL 2 lit, but forms part 
of the noun before pronominal suffixes). From trisyllabic nouns: 

na- 3 a-as-su , LwJa-bxl-su » wa-bil-si-in . From dissyllabic nouns with 
double consonants: um-ma-su , GIS . TUKUL- ga-su- /Kakkasu/ , Gen. ends 
always xn ^i: ra-ma-ni-ga , uz-ni-ki , be-li-su . PI, Norn,: SAM- mu- 
su , is-ki-nu-su , Gas-bu-sa (Ur III), Gen. -Ace: dub-bi^su-ni , ik- 
ri-bi-su , sar-ri-su-nu . Du. Norn, : i-da-su /i » kab~la-su 
/qablasu/ . Gen. -Ace: -e-ni-su . In Fern. Sg. Norn. -Ace. note: ki- 
is-da-su /qxstasu/ , e-da-su , e-tim-da-su , but t also Be-Ia-zuI (wr. 
su)-nu, -gul-la-zi-in /kullassin/ , Ls3ar-ru -uz-zu , Si-ma-zu , Ga-zu- 
/Qassu/ . Gen,: ga-ti-su , ga-ti-ku-ni , sar-ru -ti-su . PI. Norn. -Ace: 
Dup-ga-zu-nu /Tupqassunu/ , SI G-su-nu . Du. Nom. a-fea-da-ki /a^ataki/ . 

Observe, however, the following divergencies: 

G a-lu-ma-sa and mu-ra-as "her young animal," both doubtful 
Ace in a Sargonic incantation, Cf. also A-wi-la-sa , A-wx-la-sa , 
jUbx-la-sa /Amlasa?/ , all in Ur III. For ilak cf. p. 215. 

PN ARAD -da-ni A T ardani /, Rx-in-da-»ni /Rxnta ni/ from *RJmtani 
in Ur III, corresponding in form to later PN f s Beltani , A^atani, 
etc., for which cf. von Soden, ZA XL 221, and Stamm, ANG p. 2lUu 

( d BN.ZU-) a-bx4u , (^.ZU-^ a-bu-su , both in Ur III, as well as 
A-ba-su-na (Ur III). 

Sar-ru-si-in /Sarrusin /, if not Sar-ru-<al>-sl-in . 

Su-mi-su (once), as against Sum-su- /Sumsu- / (passim). 

Pu-su (-Gl), Pu-su(-ki-in) (Ur III), (i-ku-)bu-sa /(ikun-)pusa / 
in Nom., and ( T J-zu-ur-)ba-su , (l-au-ur-)ba-s[u] in Ace 

(Sa-lim-)be-lx-ni (twice in Ur III). 

Ga-la-su-nu-ma /kalasunuma / (copy) and perhaps ga-lanna 
/kalama / (copy) in Ace, ga-li-su /kalisu/, ga-lx-sa~ma (copy) in 
Gen., and perhaps ga-Iu(l)-ma (copy) in Nom. 

6. Adjectives and Participles 

As in later periods, adjectives agree with the noun they modify 
in case, number, and gender. 

The PI. of adjectives and participles ends in t-utum , -utim in 
the Mase, and -atum, -atim in the Fern., as in later periods: (i- 
lu) ra- bi-u-tum "the great gods," u-fau-™~ tum "(people) left over," 
(URU KI .IEU KI ) za[m] "the sinful cities" (copy), ( za-bi-u ) 
?i-nu-tum "the regular workers," ( is-bi-gi ) gi-nu-tim "the regular 

(grain) accuraulation(s), " na-ak-ru-uz-zu (not nakrutesu ) "his ene- 
mies," ( nir ) sa~nin-u-tim "the sraiter of rivals" (Ur III), (GEME) 
a-fcl-da-tum /= sahitatum?/ "the .... female workers." 

In contrast to the -ut of later periods the Constr. St. Masc. 
ends in -u in the Sargonic Period: ma-^i-ru (KUG.3ABRAR) "the re- 
ceivers of money," za?~bi-lu (....) "the carriers? of ....," ga-zi- 
ru ( [M]a-ma-tim ) "the walkers of PN." In AB+AS -bu-ut /sibut /, the 
Constr. St. ends in -ut apparently because AB+AS -bu-tum /s£butum / 
represents a PI. of a substantivized Part, sibum "witness." 

The Pred. St. Masc. ends regularly in ^-u, as in -da-nu , -dam- 
kti^ wa-si-bu , bi-ru (B^R), b^-ab-tu , ^u^bu-tful , mu-gi-bu ($ D oP, 
Ur III) . 

The Du. Fern. Constr. St. appears as ma-fri-ir-da (KUG.BABBAR) 
"(two women), receivers of silver." 

The Du. Masc. Pred. St. occurs in ( kab-Ia-su ) ma-ar-za-ma "its 
two hips are afflicted" and perhaps in (PN^.u PN 2 ) la?-ba-a (with 
unknown meaning), while the corresponding Fern, is attested in ( a- 
fca-da-ki ) sa-Iim-da "thy two sisters are well." 

7. Formation 

Outside of the standard formations appearing at all stages of 
Akkadian, a number of Sargonic formations merit special discussion. 

The qutulla D um formation occurs in the following nouns: (so 
much barley) b^-^-^"^ "destruction," (barley, oil) mu-bur/bu-ra- 
um "receipt," (animals) runa-ba^um "compensation," (persons) ru-ku- 
ma-um "claim," (witnesses of) gu-su i -ra-im or rguT?-su-ra-im or gu- 
su[r-r]a-im "transaction?" Cf. also the doubtful case of ( a-na ) u- 
su, -a-im ( a-ti-ir ) (copy). The relatively numerous occurrences of 
the qutulla 3 um formation in Old Akkadian belie the statement of von 
Soden in Symbolae Koschaker p. 207 that this formation does not 
occur in the older language because it presupposes high technical 
knowledge and a developed legal order. Even without the Old Akka- 
dian examples such a statement x^ould be open to question on purely 
linguistic grounds. Primitive technical status does not go hand in 
hand with "primitivity" of language. 


The formation muqtalum occurs in muda^um "knowing" in such PN's 
as (Be-li-)mu-da , (DINGIR-) mu-da , etc, and in muzzazum "standing" 
in PR's mu-za-zu . 

The qattulum formation is attested in the following personal 
names from the Sargonic Period: ga-bu-lCum3 , Ba-pu-zum (PPS?), Ra- 
um-tum , Ra-bu-zum , Za-fau-tum (SgT, beside Zu-bu-tum ). 

One of the features of Old Akkadian is the frequent use of the 
qitluro or qitiltum formation with the meaning of a Passive Participle 
or an abstract noun: mi-kir (DN) "favored by DN" or "favor of DN" 
(Der), ( a-ti ) mi-gi. -tim "including the slain (people)" (copy), Ni- 
id-nu-sa "her gift" (Der; cf ♦ Nidin-Istar , Nidnat-Sin in Stamm, 
ANG p. 257), Ni-se i: L (-e-ni-su ) "his favor(ed)," Ri-im t-^N^ZU) 
"loved by Sin" or "love of Sin" (Ur III), Ri-mu-us /Rimus/ "in his 
love," Ri-in-da-ni /Rintani/ (Ur III) from * Rfrntani "our love," not 
"our beloved," because the name Ri-in-da-ni is Masc, Ri-is(-be-li) 
"rejoiced over by my lord" or "rejoicing of my lord" (Ur III), Ri- 
is-tum "rejoicing" (Ur III), and Gi-sum /Qisum/ "gift." From the 
abstract meaning possibly a tertiary meaning of an Active Participle 
developed, as in the following examples: (DN) nir ( sa-nin-u-tim ) 
"BR, the smiting (or "smiter") of the rivals" (the form and parallels 
are discussed in MAD III 191), (PN) ri-is (GN) "PN, the smiting (or 
"smiter") of GN, " (Ma-an-)gi-ir "who is the opposition?" or "who is 
the opponent?" (Ur III), Ri-is (-DINGIR) "god is a help(er)," Ri- 
zi(-DINGIR) "god is my help(er)" (Ur III). 

The gentilic formation ends in -ijum , Fern, -itum , as in A-ga- 
de-um a. A-ga-ti-um (HSS X), Si-mu-ur, -ri-u (HSS X), Ti-ra-ba-ni-um 
(MAD I), Ha-bu-ri-tum (Schneider, AnOr XIX No. 186), An-nu-ni-tim 
(RTC 118). 


Note : All the occurrences in the chapter on Verbs are listed 
in the following order: strong verbs, geminates, verbs primae n, 
verbs primae * „, verbs secundae _% ? , verbs tertiae * 7 . 


1. Conjugation 

a * Pretext and Present-Future 

i. Stems I and IV 

(a.) Prefixes Before Consonants Other Than \jj 

Sg, 1 c. (Oa-m&ur 1 ^ 
2 itu ta-m&ur 

2 f. *ta-m&ur-I 

3 m. (j)i-mbur '' 
3 f. ta-mkur p; 

PI. 1 c. ni-m&ur 

2 m. ^ta-m&ur-a 

2 f . -ata-m^ur-a 



3 m. ( jK-ni&ur-u 

3 f. (j)i-m&ur-u 
Du. 2 c. ^-ta-m&ur-a 

3 c 

( j)i-mbur-a ; 

1) This prefix is expressed normally by signs standing for a 
or a plus a consonant, as in: 

a-ga-ma-lu^su ) , a-ga-sa-ar , a&-bi-lu-si-ma (Subj., CM), afc-si-feu 
(Subj., CM), Am-da-lx-ik (Ur III), ap-ru-uk-su (Ur III), a-ra-ga-mu 
(Subj., Ur III), ag-ba-zu (Ur III), a?-sa-ga-nu (Subj.), as-da-na- 
ba-ra-ma (Ur III) , asl-rq^uk (copy), [a]s-tu-ru (Subj.), A -da-gal , 
A-da-lal , ad-lul , a-na-da-kum , a -na -da-nu -kum (Subj.), at-ti -kum , 
fal-ti-sum , a-ti-na (Subj.)., a-ti-nu-sum (Subj.), e-be-el (CM), a- 
bu-us (£S), (l-nin-)a^na-^aq , a-zu-uz (CM), a-ki-is- , a-si-tu (Subj.), 
a-ze-fca-me , fal-ni-ir-kum , as -si (CM), at -ma (Ur III), as -ma-ma , 
afa-da -tu? , ab-ni (copy), ak-mi-[u] (Subj., copy), Ar-si- , -ar-si 
(Ur III), a-ga-bi , aq-bi-si-im , as-bi-i-ma . But beside these we 
have such spellings as a-as-Jai-it and am-fcur , which might represent 
attempts to express in writing the initial ^ of the spoken language. 

2) Attested in dag-ru-fsal?-am , Dam-Iik , da-ap-ru-us , da-na- 
da-nu (Subj.), da-ti-in , da-na-za-ar , da-sa-am (Pres.), da-la- a-mu 
(Subj,), da-ki -ba -an-ni , da-as-da-[b]u , daq-bi . 


3) Attested perhaps in da-ba-sa-ki-ni . 

k) , This prefix is expressed normally by signs standing for i 
or 1 plus a consonant, as in -id-ni-ik (Ur III), I-daHai-k(i-x-li) 
(Ur III), Ig-mul- (Ur III), ig?-ru-sa-<xm , ik-sur, Ib-bu-lum (Ur 
III), Ifa-Iu-uq , Ik?-bu-z(i-na-at) (Ur III), ik-ru-ub-ma (Der), -ik- 
zur (Ur III), ik-su-tu (Suhj.), Im-lik- (Ur III), im-kur , im-ka-zu 
(Subj.), Ip-bur~ , i-ba-la-a-fa (Ur III), I-ba-lx-qs , ib-ba-al-zu-sum 
(Subj.), Ip-ru-uk , ip-ri-ka-am-ma (CM), ip-ru-us , i-ba-ta~ar (Ur 
1^)5 ^£zSLlSS ^ Ur I^Oj Ir-mq«mk- (Ur III), is,-ba-at , i-sa-ga-nu- 
ma (Subj., copy), is-ku-un 5 is-ku-nu (Subj.)j Is -lam- , is-bu-uk 
(copy), is?-da-na-ba-ra-am , [i]-sa?-gal , Is -dap- , i-sa-da-ru (Subj.), 
it-ba-al , it-ba-lu (Subj.), I-da-ra-ak- (Ur III), It-ra-ak— (Ur 
III), i-da-pa-afe-si-ma , I-za-mar 3 iz~ru-uq , Ib-lul- 3 Id-ni-in- (Ur 
III), i -ma -da -ad 3 im-tu-ud , I-ba-sa-as (MN),. is-du-^id 3 is-du-da 
(Subj.), is-Iu-ul , i-na-da^an , i -na -da? -nu -sum (Subj.)j i-ti-in , 
■ i-ti-nam , i-ti-sum (copy), i-ti-nu-ma (Subj.), i-ti-nu-sum (Subj.), 
i-ti-na (Subj.), i-ta-ti-in (Ur III), I -fa! -id- , i-bu-lam-ma , I-bx- 
iq- , i-zu-u^-ma (copy), i-na-za-ar 3 I-zu-ur- , I-ra-am- (Ur III), 
Is-a-Ium , i-sa-am (Ur III), i-be -AL (copy), i-ki-ru (Subj.), I-rl*- , 
I-ri-ib (Ur III), I-rx-is- , i-za-na-ma (copy), i-fau-us^ (ES), I-gu- 
num , I-ku-un- (Ur III), I-ba-um 3 I-mu-tum , fil?-mu-tu (SubjQ, I- 
dur- , I-tu-ru-um (Ur III), i-za-&z 3 i-za-zu-ni (Subj.)> [iz-z]i-za- 
am (CM), i-din , i-ti-nu (Subj,), i-ki-is , -i-ki-sa-am (Ur III), 
i-ki-su-sum (Subj., copy), I-si-im- 3 I-sim- , I-ti-ib- (Ur III), 
I-zi-ir- , ib-ra , I-hx- , it-ma , itnna , ip-te-^q (Subj«), ip-te-ma 
(copy), Ip-ti- , Is-ma- , Is-ma- , Is-me- t x-faa?-pu? (Ur III), ik-su- 
am 3 it-ru , ib-ni 3 ib-ri , id-gi-e-su I -nu-ma (copy), ik-M., ik-me , 
ik-mi-u (Subj.), Im-ni- (Ur III), I-ki- , Is-ni- , Is-rx- , i-ba-se , 
i-ba-se ,.,, i-ba-se-u (Subj # ), ib-si (Ur III?), i-ga-pi-u (Subj., 
copy), i-ga-bi-u (Subj., copy), Iq-bi- , Is-bx- (Ur III), It-be- , 
It-be-um . But beside these there are such spellings as i-ig-imi-ur 
(copy), I-is-e- , i-ikHrd , suggesting that the prefix may also have 
been ji- in the Sargonic Period. Observe also the unusual spellings 
im (DU) -jgar (beside im-^ur ) , Im -da-lik 3 im -tu-ud : (beside im-tu- 
ud), jr-e- (beside I-rx- ) , ir-e-ib , etc. (Ur III, beside I-ri-ib , 
Ur III), ir-gu-nu-um , xr-ku-<is (copy), xr-gu-us (copy), Ir-am- , 
ir-a-mu-um, ir-ra-^am- , xl-gu-ut (copy), xl-gi- , xl-ga , IL-e- , j-li- 

(Ur III), fl-te-mm , Is (lAM+KUR)-e- (beside I-is-^- ) , -which, in * 
accordance with a suggestion made above p. 26, may indicate an 
initial onset. 

Instead of i we find e in verbs beginning with a consonant in 
en-ar (copy), en-a-ru , En-bi-iq- , E-aur- (Ur III, beside I-zur- , Ur 
III), e-ra-a-amnsu , es-a-ru (beside is (LAM+KUR) -ar , is -a*ru , Subj., 
and is -ar-ru , Subj.), £s-me- (Ur III, beside Is -me- , etc.), e-ga-bi . 

£) The prefix of the 3rd pers. Fem. Sg. is regularly ta- in 
Sargonic. Cf . dam-&ur , Dam-da -lik , perhaps da-as-4cu~ul , da-ti-in , 
perhaps da-na-kir , da-as-zi (SS D 7 ), also such Fern, PN's as Da~as- 
dup-ba , Da-ad-lul-tum , Da-^as -lul-tum , Da-ri-bu , Dar-ti-bu , Da-as- 
ma-tum , Da-as-gi-tum . As against these examples there are no forms 
with the prefix i- for the Fern,, since it-ti-sum and li-ip-ru-us 
(quoted in ray OIP XX7II p. Itl) occur in late copies and i-si-ir is 
found in a difficult context without clear connection with the sub- 
ject. The case of U-bil( -Esi -dar) and I-din( -Es i -dar) in Ur III is 
indecisive since Estar can appear both as a Fern, and a Masc, divinity. 
In the Ur III texts we have tal-gu-ut , da-ti-in , Tu-Ii-id- , Da-bur- , 
Da-ri-is- , Te-zi-in- , Tu-ki-in- , Ta-ku-um- (K 5 ,N), but i-ti-in and 
it-ma in one text (Yondorf a), and -ik-zur (p, 215) in PW f s. 

6) Attested in ni-ir-da-^i-i (RS D ? , Ur III). 

7) Attested in i-ma-ha-ru , iro-fau-ru , ip-hu-ru-nim-ma . ir-ku- 
5H* is-ku-nu-fsil , is-mu-tu » it-bu-hu « is-du-tu , i-gi-ru-us . LitJ- 
-ma-u , it-ma-u , it-ru-u f i-ba-as-su-u (CM) . 

8) Clearly attested in (SU.NIGJIN 10 GEMS a-na GN) i-la-gu (HSS 
X 200). Apparently also in ( ki-ib-ra-tu[m] ar-ba^um is-ti-ni-is ) 

i -faa-ni -sui nm im-j^u-ru-nim " the four quarters together were subdued 
and faced me" (copy) and in ( ki-ib-[ra-tum] a[ r-ba-um] i[s-ti]-ni- 
i[s] ) im (DU) -&u-r[u] -ni-suj-ma .... Gf. also ( i -rat-ma ki-ib-ra-at 
ar-ba-i is-ti-ni-is ) ib-ba-al-ki-tu-ni-in-ni in a late legend of 
Naram-Sin (RA X7I l6l:10f.). It is not clear from the context of a 
letter addressed to several women (MAD I 290) whether the verbs 
[ I]i-it-ru-u-nim , li -i s -tu-ru-nim , etc. refer to these women or to 
other subjects, perhaps Masc M or both Masc. and Fern. 

9) Attested in im-&u\-ra , im -da-a&~ga-ma (copy), is-gu-na-ma 
(copy), it-ba-la (Met., from Sollberger) , i-ti-na-sum 
(copy), perhaps en-a-ra , i-fei-na-ma , is-ni-a-ma (copy), and the 

preceding li-il-gu-da and li-zu-faa . Exceptions occur in 
(i-rowtne GN, u GNp) i-gi-ru-us (NKR) in a text from Elam, and in (2 
PN's) 11-za-zu-ma , li-ip-te-u-ma , li-rse. .- l-zi^i-nim-ma , Il-ik-nu-ku , 
11-ig-zu-zu , li-ti-nu in a single unpubl. text, Cop, 10055* 

(b.) Prefixes With Verbs Primae D i_2 

Sg. 1 c. Oa-'mur 1 ^ 


2 m. ta-'mur i 

2f, -frta-'raur-i 

3 m. (j)i-°mur 3 ) 
3 f . *ta- D mur 

PI. 1 c. -fcni-^mur 

2 m. #ta- D mur-a 

2 f . #ta-°mur-a 

3 m. (jH-^mur-Ha ' 
3 f. <j)i- D mur-a/u 

Du. 2 c. -Mta-^mur-a 

3 c (j)i- D mur-a^ 

1) Attested in a-^u-z[a^a]m (doubtful), a-la~kam , a-li-ku 
(Subj.), al-li-ku (Subj., copy) , A-na-ab- (Ur III), A-da-na-^afa . 

2) Attested in tal-Ii-ik , da-mu-ur-raa , da-emi-ru (Subj.). 

3) Attested in i-bu-uz 5 i-da-faa-az 5 i-la-ak , e-la-kam » i-li- 
ik-ma , i-l£-ik (copy), i-li-kam , il-li-kam-ma 3 i-li-ku (Subj.), 
i-li-ku (Subj., copy), it-tal-ku , I-lul- . 

U) Attested in i-la-gu s il-la-gu (CM), i-mu-ru , e-*au-ru . 
5) Attested in e -la-ga -LAM+KUR, i-li-ga-ni (Subj.). 

(c.) Prefixes With Verbs Primae >$„$ 




(=)a- c pus l) 



ta~ c pus 



*ta- c pus-I 






ta- c pus H ' 




ni- c pus 



*ta- c pus-a 



*ta- c pus-a 



( j;i- c pus-u 



*( j)i- c pus-a/u 




*ta- c pus-a 



*(i)i- c pus-a 

1) Attested in -e-ni-is (perhaps 3rd pers., Ur III), e-bu-us 
(only in late CM), a-ru-us (^RS), a-ri-is-ga ( \ ^RS). 

2) Attested in te-ir-rx-is ( D . hRS), -tenai-is (Ur III), -te- 
in-is (Ur III)* 

3) Attested in I-wi- ('oV^*)* i-ni and e -ni (MS 3 ,,, perhaps 
N^V* -e-ni-is (perhaps 1st pers., Ur III), -i-ni -is (Ur III), 
E-bi-ir- , e-bi-is , . i-bu-us , e-ru-ub , e-ru-ub , -e-ri-is ( D j ^RS), 
-e-ze-id (perhaps Part., ? 3 §D, Ur III), i-ti-ru (Subj., ^^TR), 
[e]-zi-ba-am (Ur III), I-zi-in- , (if from * 3 §N, Ur III). 

k) Attested perhaps in Te-ai-in( -Ma-ma) (Ur III), Te-ze-in(- 
^a-ma) (Ur III), Ta-ae-in- (if from ^N, Ur III). 

5) Attested in ni-e-ra?-[ab]? , 

6) Attested in e-ri^3u!-ga ( D , ^RS). 

(d.) Prefixes with Verbs Primae *£ 

Sg. 1 c. 

( ^u-bil 15 

2 m. 

tu-bil ; 

2 f . 


3 m. 

(j)u-bil 3) 

3 f . 

tu-bil W 

PI. 1 c. 


2 m. 


2 f . 


3 m. 

(j)u-b(i)l-5 6) 

3 f . 


Du* 2 c. 


3 c. 


1) Attested in unma, 

u-ma, u-ma, U-da-, U-ta- (Ur III), ft-da- 

(Ur III). 

2) Attested in Tu-li- 

-id-, tu-sa~bu (Subj.). 

3) Attested in u-ba-al, u-b£l, U-bj[l-, u-bi-lam, u-bi-lam, 

u-ub-lam, u-ub-lu (Subj.), 

u-li-id-, u-ru, u-ru-am, u-ru-a-am-ma 

(copy), u-ru-us (copy), u-ur-da-ni (Subj.), U-za-, U-ze-, O-zi- 

(Ur III), u-sa-ab. For the interpretation of the prefix as ju- 

cf . pp. l64f . 

U) Attexted in Tu-li- 

-id- (Ur III). 

5) Attested in nu-ru-anu 

6) Attested in ub-lu 3 

, u-bi-lu-nim, u-sa-bu, Prec. li-is-bu. 

(e.) Prefixes With Verbs Primae ^7 

Sg. lc #( D )e-sir 

2 m. ti-sir ; 

2 f. *ti-s(i)r-i 
3m. (j)x-sxr 

3 f . >ti-sir 

. v, 3) 
PI. lc. nx-sir ; 

2 m. *ti-e(i)r-S 

2 f. *ti-e(i)r-a. 

3 m. *(j)i-e(i)r-S 

3 f. *(j)i-6(i)r-a/u 

Du. 2 c. *ti-s(i)r-a 

3 c. *(j)i-s(i)r-a 

1) Attested in ti-da , ti-su . 

2) Attested in I -da- , i-su , I-su- (Ur III), i-si-ir . 

3) Attested in ni-su , -ni-su (Ur III) . 

ii. Stems II and III 

Sg. 1 c. ( :> )uHnaJjbir \ ( D )u-sam&ir 

2 m. tu-ma£&ir 

2 f. #tuHttaj&ir-I 

3 m. ( j)uH?iakkir 

3 f. tu-maJaljir ' 

PI. 1 c. nu?H^a&jir^ 

2 m. ■fctu-mayjir-a 

2 f. *tu-mayair-a 

3 m. -(dyu-mabbir-u ' 
3 f. *(j)u-BiaJjbir-a/u 

Du, 2 c. *tu-ma£bir-a 

3 c. (j)u^afcbir-a 


1) Attested in U"wa«e-ru-us , perhaps f u-wa-ti-ru?-sum 1 ( °>rTR) , 
perhaps us-da-a-bi-la ( D PL?, Subj.), u-dam-me-ki (TO 3 .,). In CM we 
find uHad-di-is , u-ta-i[r] , u-te-ir , u-ra-ad-di , u-ra-at-ti , and 

2) Attested only in du-sa-ba-lam (Ur III), [t]u-gi-il . 

3) Attested in u-ba-li?-ifr , u-gal-la-mu-ma (Subj., copy), 
perhaps u-gal-lim , u-sa-al-bi-tu (Subj., copy), u-sa^am-ki-it etc. 
(copy), u-^sa-Iim , u-na-ki-is , u-sa-za-ku-ni/ma (Subj.), u-sa-zi-ik 
(copy), u-sa-za-za-suj , u^a-faa-ru (Subj., copy), u-sa-fcL-su-ni 
(MjZ, copy), u-sa -PI-ir (copy), u-li-il (copy), u-sa-mi-id (copy), 
u-sa-rf-ib , u-3a-ri-ib , [u]?-fsa?-ri1--ba (Subj.), u-su-zi (copy), 
u-su~ze , u-su-zi-am-ma (copy), u-zi-ip , U-su-si-ir- , u-ga-al , u-gi- 
^-9 u ""g^-"^^- ( C0 Py)> u-ki-il-si-dm-ma (CM), u-ga-nu (Subj.), U-gi-in- , 
u-ga-e ( copy) , U-bi-in- , u-ra-is-ma ( copy) , u-sa-am-la-suj -m , u-da- 
bi-su (copy) , f u 1 -us -ba-la-ga-at-ma . In the PI. we have u-wa-ga-mu , 
u-sa-ri-[bu] (copy), and u-ga-lu (copy). As against 83 examples of 
this prefix written u~ (Sg, and PI.) we have lU examples of its being 
written u- and u-, distributed as follows: u-sa-az-me-ir , u-ga-ti-id 
u-sa-za-gu-ni , u-sa-za-gu , u-sa-za-gu , u-sa-ti-ir , u-gi-in-sum from 
Elam; u-ga-lim , u-se -., -gi , u-ba-ri in a single text of unknown date 
and origin (BIN VIII 1UU) ; u-da-bi-bu-siHma (PI., DBB?) in a text 
from Kishj and u-su-ri-dam in a text of unknown date and origin 
(Louvre AO 895°). , Only in the Ur III Period do forms with u and u 
regularly appear: U-sa^ag-sim , 1J~sa-ak-li-il , U-ta-ak-ki-il , tJ-da- 
ad( -ze-na-at) , u-su-ri-id , u-te-ra or u-te-ru (Subj.), with one 
exception in -u-zi-li . 

Statistics do not give an adequate picture of the situation 
s ince it is clear that while the prefix is written u- throughout the 
whole Sargonic area and throughout the whole Sargonic Period, the 
prefix written u- and u- is limited to Elam and to a few texts of 
unknown date. Since we know that the Elamite texts come from the 
latter part of the Sargonic Period, the suspicion naturally arises 
that the few texts of unknown date are also late. Thus we can draw 
the conclusion that the confusion of the three writings of this pre- 
fix began only in the late periods of Sargonic. 

The prefix written u^ appears also in the 3rd pers. of Stem I 
in verbs primae \ , as in u-ba-al , u-bx-lam , u-b£l , U-bil- , u-ub-lu 

(Subj.), u^ab-lam , ub-lu (PI.), U-li-id- , u-ru , u-ru-am , u-ru -us , 
u-ru-a-amHaia , u-ur-da-ni , U-za- , U~ze- , u-sa-ab , u-sa-bu (PI.), all 
together 55 examples, as against one occurrence each of u-bi-lam and 
u-bi-lu-nim in a single text of unknown date and origin, but belonging 
to the same group as the text with the late form u-su-ri-dam , listed 
above. Only in the Ur III Period do forms with u and u regularly 
appear, as in U-bal- , U-ze- j U-zi- , U-zi- . Thus again we arrive at 
the inescapable conclusion that the normal writing of the prefix of 
the 3rd pers. of Stem I in verbs primae \ is u-, with the writing 
u making its appearance only in the later part of the Sargonic 

As against the overwhelming use of the writing u- for the 3rd 
pers. Sg. and PI. , we find the writing u- and u- for the 1st pers. 
Sg. in u-dam-me-ki (TM 3 -. ), u-wa-e-ru-us , u-ma , u-ma , u-ma , U-da- 3 
U-da- (Ur III). 

The conclusion imposes itself that the different spellings 
indicate a difference in the actual pronunciation of the two pre- 
fixes. Since the prefix of the 1st pers. Sg. can hardly be any- 
thing else than ^u- , we should conclude that the prefix of the 3rd 
pers. Sg. and PI. was something like ju- , at least up to and including 
the first half of the Sargonic Period. 

This contrast between V (written u and u) and ju (written u) 
proposed for the verbal prefixes also fits other spellings. For ^u 
cf • ba-.., -u-la-ti , U-zu-^xr-ba-su , u-zu-^ir , u-ku-ru-tum 3 and regularly 
*" P1 * it-ruHi , li-it-ru-u-nim , it-ma -u , ^a-su-u , Si-mu-urk-ri-u , 
Gu-ti-u , Su-ba-ri-u ; for ju cf . (in) u-mi-su (but u-mi-sa-am at 
Elam) , Ip-te-u-um (beside Ip-ti-um ) , and especially li-ip -te -u-ma , 
beside li-f se i: L 1-zi-u-nimHfna in the same unpubl. text, Cop. 10055; 
on the treatment of \ as \ in Akkadian cf. pp. 186 and 190. 

U) Attested only in Tu-ki-in- (Ur III). 

5) Attested only in ni -se . - -bi-lam , which may be a scribal 
error for nu-g e^-bi -lam . * 

6) Attested in u-wa-ga-mu , u-sa-ri-[bu] (copy), u-ga-lu 

7) Attested in us ? -da? -li -s a-ma (copy) and perhaps in [u]?- 
si-si-ra ( copy) . 


b. Imperative 

Sg. 2 m. mufcur ' 

2 f # mufcr-i 2 ^ 
PI. 2m. rau&r-a^ ; 

2 f. #mu&r-a 
Du. 2 c. -Mmu&r-a 

1) Attested in -du-gul , Ku-bu-us (Ur III), Ku-ru-ub~ , -kur- 
ba-as (Ur III), -ku-rU-ba . ( Ur III), Na-ap-li-is- (Ur III) , Bu-ru-uk 
(Ur III), bi-sit -ifr-ma (copy), Za-ba-^at- , Zu-ru-u& (Ur III), su-gu- 
un, -da -gal , -ti-gal (Ur III), tu-ur . -da , flu-zu-us- , i-ti-in , u-zu- 
ur, U-zu-ur- , al-kam-ma , A-mur- , (EN-) a-si-ra-ni , ( j-li-) as-ra-ni 
(Ur III), °a-ru-us , -bi-la-ni , -bi-la-ni , Zi-ip- , -ra-am (Ur HI), 

Ku-un(-Sa-lim) , Nu-ub" (Ur III), Tu^ra-am- (Ur III), Tur^am- (Ur 
III), Tur-am- (Ur III), Tu-ra- (Ur III), ba-dam , Me-ze- , SiHftie-a~ni 

(Ur III), ki-bi-yaa . 

2) Attested in ti-ni (D D »N), su-bi-lim , Ku-un-si- (Ur III). A 

possible Imp. Fern, form is za-ab-t[ i] -su-l"ni?-ti? 1 /gabtl-suniti?/ 
in Sargonic. 

3) Attested in Su-si-ra ( D 7 SR) , Ku-na( -ma-tmn) (not clear, Ur 
III), -ra-ma " (Ur ni) . 




1 c. 


2 m. 

— 2^ 


2 £. 


3 m. 


ma&ir ; 

3 f. 

ma^rat ' 


1 c. 


2 m. 


2 f . 

3. m. 


ma&ru ' 

3 f. 



2 m. 


2 f . 


3 m. 

u -6) 
mabra ' 

3 f . 

mahirta ' 


1) Attested in -dak-la-ku (Ur III) and -da-ak-la-ak-sum (Ur 

2) Attested in tu-mu-at . 

3) Attested in -da-me-iq , DaHmi-iq (Ur III), -ga-mi-el , -ga- 
mi-il (Ur III), -ga-se-ir (Ur III), -ga4i-ir (Ur III), -ba-bi-it 
(Ur III), ga-as-fa( a-me-ir) (Ur III), -ga-sa-ad , -ma-lik , Ba-lu-ufa- 3 
-Ba-lxb , -ba-liq , Sa-lim( -a-fau) t Sa-alHm(afa) (Ur III), Hsa-ma-ar 
(Ur III), Sa-afr-be- , Sa-a^be-;, Da-ki-il- , -da-Oil?, Da-an- f . -fta- 
zi-is (Ur III), -pa-lx-il (Ur III), na-ti-in , na-ki-ir-ma (copy), 
na-zi-ib , -na-zi-ir , A-ri-ik- , Wa-al-t(i-lum) (Ur. Ill), A-lx-dd ( -^N. 
ZU) (Ur III), -wa-gar (Ur III), I-sar- , U-<a-se-ir(-Da-ga-an) , Wa- 
dar-, ¥a-dur- , Ha -ad- , Na-id- , -la-e/i (Ur III), -li-i (Ur III), 
-gi-in , -ki-in (Ur III), Ne-fr(i-lum) "(Ur III), Na-^wi-ir- (Ur III), 
Na-me-ir- (Ur III), etc., -gi-ip (Ur III), -da-ab (Ur III), Na-bi*- , 
Ma?-zi^am- , Ma-ze- (Ur HI), ga-ti-, na-tu, Ma-ni- (Ur ni), -ra-bx , 
Ga-r£* , ga-bi (Ur Hi). For forms of the Stative in -a cf. the 
discussion on pp. 14-6ff. 

k) Attested in -dam-ga-at , mal-a&-za-at , sal-tna-at , ^-da-na- 
at, Wa-at-ra-at (Ur III) , -ri-ba-at , da-bat (Ur III), -ra-bx-at . 

5) Attested in -dam-ku , faa-ab-tu , ^u-bu-tful , -da-nu , bi-ru . 

6) Attested in ma-&r-za-ma , Ia?-ba-a . 

7) Attested in sa-lim-da /salimta /. 

2, Verbal Nouns 

a. Active Participle 

The Act. Part, of Stem I has the form ma^irum , as in Ga-si-id- , 
la-bi-in (CM), -ma-ftir , ma-bi-ru ( Pi » Constr. St,) f raa-hi-ra (Du. 
Constr. St.), ma-j^i-ir-da (Du. Fern. Constr. St.), ma-j^i-is (Der), 
sa-ki-in (Der), -sa-lx-iq (Ur III), -sa-liq , sa-bi-ir (doubtful, 
C0 V7) 9 za?-bx-Iu (PI. Constr. St.), sa-ti-da (Du. Constr. St.), Na- 
bi-kum (Ur III?), a-lx-ik (copy), Anad-ir- , (:ga -as -]a) a-me-ir (Ur III), 
-e-ze-id (perhaps Pre t. , ^nP> Ur m)> E-zi-tum (Ur III), wa-bxl- , 
wa-si-bu (Pred. St.), Ri-fil-tum , Ra-im- , na-e , sa-v?i-ru-um , La-e- 
pum , sa-ir , ,^"Si> SS^illHS* Ra-si (Ur III), Ra-si (Ur III). 

Ih other stems the Part, appears with the prefix mu- 3 as in 
mu-ka-li-iq (Der) , -mu-da-bil 5 -mu-tab~bil (Ur Hi) , -mu-bi , mu- 
dar-rj[ (copy), mu-us-ti-si-firl (Der), Mi-ri-iq- (Ur III), Ku-ni- 
bu-um (Ur III), Mu-sa-wi-ir (Ur III), Mu-sa-ir-su-nu (doubtful), 
mu-gi-bu (Ur III), mu-sa-ar-bx-x (Constr. St.). Ifote also the Part, 
of the muqtal formation in -mu-da ( D /.D°i) snd (PN f s) mu-za-zu (Z^Z), 

b# P& ss i ve Participle 

The Pass. Part, of Stem I usually has the vowel i in the form 
maferum , Fern, majplrtum , as in na-ti-in "given, 11 -ba-lx*-ifr "alive" 
(Ur III), and in many forms of the Stative listed on p. l66f. 
Nominalized Pass. Part, (and adjectives) are: GaHme-ru-mn , Ga-mi- 
ru-um , ga-bi-lum 3 ga-ab-lum 3 faa-ab-lim u ^a-bi-el-tim (Der) , Qa-ab- 
tum (Ur III), La-bi-ru-um (Ur III), Ba-aq-tum , Ba-rx-za-tuia 3 Sa-at- 
pum , Sal-mu-^um , na-aq-tim , -na-aq-tum 3 Na-a$-ru^um 5 Ar-kum , a-lx- 
dam , e-li-[tum]? (Ur III), a-lx-a-tim , ip-sum , Ir-sum , Iz-bu-um (Ur 
III), Sa-il -turn (Ur III), La-i-um , Rx-pum , Gi-jxuin- 3 gi-nu-tum , gi- 
nu-tim 3 La-wi-puTml j Xa-wi-ib-tum 3 La-wi-ib-tum 5 Ki-pum , Gi-sum , 
Na-bx-um , ba-ti-tum , Sa-mi-um , ga-ti-um , Ga-mi-um , Ga-mi-a-tum 5 
-ra-bx*-um (Ur III), ra-bJL-u-tum (copy), ba-ri-um , Ba-si-um 3 Bari- 
um , Ga-rx-um . 

The vowel u appears in lam-nam , la-*riu-dam 5 li-mu-dam (Ur III), 
3a-lu-ub (-E), Ba-lub (-DINGIR) (Ur in), Wa-dur- (beside Wa-dar- ) 5 
na-tu (NT D 6 ). 

The vowel a appears in ( j-lu-) ga-sa-ad , Ga-da-suHim (Geneva 
MAH '161*95, from Sollberger), (SES-)za-^ar, (i-la-)sa^ma-ar (Ur III), 
ga-na-an-tum , (LtJ-lam) na-ga-ra-am (copy), -wa-gar (Ur III), Wa-gar- 
turn (Ur III), Ba-gar-tum (Ur III), Wa-dar- (beside Wa-dur- ) , Wa-da- 
ru-um , Ba-da-ru-um (Ur III), Ba-da-rx-im , I-sar- 5 I-sa-ru-um , Ma- 
ad-, Da-pum (T d ? B). 

The Pass. Part, (and adjectives) of geminate stems appear in 
(j-lu-)da-lxl , da-num , da-nim , -da -nam , Da-an- , -da-na-at , -da-nu , 
-faa~zi-is (Ur III), -pa-li-il (Ur III), Za-ar-ru-um (Ur III), za~ 
ar-ru-ti[m] (copy), el-lum . 

The Pass. Parts, of Stems II and III have the form mut&ur and 
sum^ur, respectively, following the Babylonian pattern, not Assyrian. 

^* b u ""^ u " u ^_ j bu-bu-tful , Gu-du^si (Ur III), u-ku-ru-tum , Su-zu-bi 
(Ur III), Su^pi-um , us-su-ru (CM), tu-mu-at . 

c * Infinitive 

The Inf. of Stem I has the form mafrarum , as in later periods, 
^* b^-sfiL-li^ j ga-ba-zi-im , la-da-ki-im , ba-sa-ri-im , na-faa-zi 
(Constr. St. Gen.), na-da-nam (Ur III), na-da-ni-is (Ur III), a-la- 
^ m > e " ra *" s ^"^ s j a-la-da^am (CM), dul-a-ri-su (copy), ma-ra-is , also 
(La-)ga-ma^al , (La-)ma-fea-ar (Ur III), (-La-)ta-ra-ak (Ur III), 
(La-) 3 a-ra-ab , (La-)a-ra-*ab , (La-) D a-ra-bu-um (L)a-ra»4)u-*im (Ur III). 

The Infs. of Stems IT and III have the form mufrkurum and sumburura , 
respectively, following the Babylonian pattern, not Assyrian. Cf . 
du-mu-ki-im , fau-zu-zi-is , gu-du -si-is , wu-zu-is , pu-ru-im (BR 5 ), 
(in) sum-lu-i-su . 

3» Moods 

a. Indicative 

Nothing unusual can be observed about the Ind. in the Old Akka- 
dian Period, as the rules governing its use correspond to those of 
later periods. 

b. Allative 

The use of the -am and -nim as the Bat. pronominal suffixes 
has been discussed above, pp. 130ff. 

The same suffixes attached to an Ind. or Impv. transfer it into 
an All. mood: e-la-kam M he will go to here,** "he will come,* Ca3- 
la-kam "I will come/* al-kam(-ma) "cornel/ 1 u-bi-lam "he brought here," 
u-bi-iu-nim "they brought here." 

c. Subjunctive 

The normal ending of the Subj. is -u, as in ( l-nu PN) i-Ii-ku , 
(a-ti la) da-mu-ru , in Sg., and (the witnesses who) is-du-tu . and 


i-mu-ru in PI. 

After the first verb in the Subj • the following verbs may appear 

in the Ind. , as in ( is -turn KAS+X.KAS+X su. -nu-ti ) is -«ar-ru (u sar- 

v —4 — x ■ — — 

rx-su-nu 3) i-ikHfli-ma ( ma]a-rx-is DN) u-sa-rx-ib (in u-mi-su ♦ ...) 
"after he had won these battles and had captured the 3 kings and 
brought them before DN, then ...♦". On the other hand, cf. a series 
of 3 Subjs. in ( i-nu DN DI.TAR- gu ) i-ti-nu-ma (u . ...) i-ti-nu (u 
. . * ♦ la) i-ti-nu-sum (copy). 

In addition to -^i another suffix -ni is sometimes used, as in 
( sa . ...) u-sa-za~ku-ni , alternating with (sa) u-^sa-za-ku/gu . This 
-ni occurs also in ( i-nu ...*) SAG.GIS.RA-ni /in^aruni /, i-za-zu-ni 
(PI., copy), and (the battles) is -a-ru-ni ("which he won"). 

After the -am suffix we have forms without the Subj. suffix, 
as in (ki) a-Ia-kara , ( i-nu PN) i-li-kam , ( [a]-ti la) dag-ru-sa-am 5 
( su-ut PN) xl-gi-am-ma it-ba-lu "(utensils)?, which PN took and 
carried away," but also with the -ni suffix, as in ( x-nu ....•) i- 
li-ga-ni (in Sg. and Du.), ( i-nu LUGAL) u-ur-da-ni . 

Besides the few cases in the Sargonic Period, this -ni suffix 
appears regularly in the Assyrian dialect and uniquely in ( i-nu -mi 
. ...) as-ku-nu-ni (inscription of Lipit-Istar published by Gadd in 
EDSA PI. 3 ii). Beside -ni , a suffix -na begins to make its appear- 
ance in the Der inscription in the form [x-nu] .... im-faal-zu-na . 
In OB dialects we have ( i-nu-mi DN's) i-li-ku-na in an inscription 
of Asduni-erim of Kish (RA VIII 65 ii) , ( a-ti a-wa-at-ga ) x-Ia-ga- 
na in a letter of unknown origin (PBS l/2 1 rev.), ( i-nu-mi . ...) 
i-sa^afa-ru-na and ( i-nu-mi ..♦.) u-ti-ru-na in the Mari liver omina 
(RA XXXV kh and hi), i-qa-bu-na (UET V 265a 12), i-pa-sa-ru-na (UET 
V 265b 9) . 

One of the most surprising linguistic characteristics of a 
group of Sargonic texts now in the Chicago Museum of Natural History 
(FM) is the use of the Subj. ending -a. There, beside the normal 
Subj . in --U, as in it-ba-lu , eHrnu-ru , [a]s-tu-ru , we find such 
occurrences as (su a-na PN) a-ti-na "(flour) which I have to Bl$, n 
( in E si) us-da-^a-bx-la "in the house in which I ..,.-ed," (AB+AS 
1 (PI) SE Pl^ a-na FNg) i-ti-na "witnesses (to the fact) that P^ 
gave 1 PI of barley to PN 2 ,» (SU.NIGfN 10 LAI 2 AB+AS-bu-jut P^ i 
a-na PN 2 ) is-du-da "a total of 8 witnesses (to the fact) that PR. 


measured the house for PN 2 ," (SE.JJAJR.AN PNL su Pli ....) ik-su . -ra 

"the PR. AN barley of P^ which PWg -ed." In a broken 

context cf. ik-su-ra (FM 1^:30) and [uj?-rsa?-ri1-ba (FM 36:30). 

The Sargonic Subj. in -a is identical with the Arabic Subj. in 
-a, both representing the older stage of the language in which the 
Subj. suffix must be identified with the oblique case of the noun, 
as represented by the vowels -i and -a. Thus the form su imfrur-a 
"he who received 1 * is structurally identical with su ili(m) "he who 
is of the god." The Gen. vowel of the Subj. is identical with the 
vowel a of the oblique case Sg. of the demonstrative pronoun sui -a 
and of the Arabic diptota. * 

The later Subj. in -u represents the substantivization of the 
whole complex. Thus su imbur-u stands in the same relation to the 
older su imfaur-a as mar-sipru(m) "messenger" does to the older mar 
siprim . 

Regarding the relationship between the Subj. and the oblique 
case of the noun cf. Old Akkadian unsia lu a-ga -ma-lu-su . "I swear 
that I will truly spare him" with u-ma la zu-ra-tim (four times as 
against single u-ma la zu-ra-tum ) "I swear that these are not lies," 
and in Mari such constructions as as -sum §a-bu-um 51-di-is-su la 
i-ga-am-ma-ru "that the army not exhaust their provisions" (TCL XXII 
71:llf.), as -sum ga-[b]a-am la i-si-ib-bi-ru "that they not destroy 
the army," (TCL XXIII 131:3 ttf.V, on the one hand, and as -sum i-na- 
a[n-na] ga-bu-[u]m a-n[a] gi-ri-ka la a-la-ki-im "that the army not 
go to you now," (TCL XXII 22:7f.), as -sum s,a-bi-im ar -fax-is a-na 
gi-ri-ka fra-ra-di-im "that the army be sent to you quickly," (lines 
5f»), on the other. 

d. Imperative 

As in later periods the vowels in the Impvs. of Stem I -du-gul 5 
za-ba^at- , ki-bJL-ma follow those of the Pret. idgul, igbat, iqbx. 
Cf . the examples on p. 166. The following differences can be ob- 
served, however: Sargonic Ba-sa-afa- , Ba-sa-afe- ,, but Ur III Bi-sa- 
a^-, Bx-sa-afa- (PSg); Sargonic -da-gal , but Ur III -ti-gal (TKL), 
In the case of ( EN-) a-si-ra-ni in Sargonic, the form asiranni pre- 
serves i, in contrast to Ur III (j-li-)as-ra-ni where i is elided. 

Cf . also the unique occurrence of ( E-la-ag-) ku-ru-ba (Ur III) for 
the expected (Elag-)kurub or (Slag-)kurba . 

The Impvs. of Stems II and III follow the pattern of the 
Babylonian, not the Assyrian, dialect. Cf . Du~kil- 5 -nu-bi-iq , Su- 
mi-id- (Ur III), Su-me-id- (Ur III), zu-da-rl*-ib , [ su] -bi-lam , su- 
bi-lam (Ur III), su-bi-lim , -su-kir (Ur III), -su-gir (Ur III), 
Su?-gir- , -su-kir (doubtful), zu-Qi-ib-ma , SuH5i-ra , -nu-id , Gi-in- , 
ti-ib , [su]?-ub-si . Thus we find tukkil , subil , kin in Old Akka- 
dian, as in Babylonian, as against takkil, sebil , kajjin of Assyrian. 

The Imp v. of Stem IV appears in Na-ap-li-is- in Ur III, giving 
the form namhir, as in later periods. 

e. Precative 




lum&ur ' 
lu tam&ur 

lumal&ir ' 



•h-Iu tuma&ijir 



*lu tamfeurl 



#lu tumaj&irl 

limai&ir ' 





-xlu tam&ur 

#lu tuma&&ir 








#lu tamfcura 

*lu tumay^ira 



-x-lu tam&ura 

*lu tumaj^iira 




limafcjjiru ' 








•*lu tam&ura 
lim&ura ' 

*-lu tumaj^ira 











lu ti-da. The use 

of lu with th< 

denied by von Soden, GAG % 81c. 

3) Attested in Li-ib-lu-oit , li-il-gu-ut (copy), li-im-]au-ra- 
an-ni , li-ip-ru-us (subject Fern., CM), li-ip-du-ur , li-ir-fei-is, (CM), 
[l]i-i§-ba-at , li-is-bir ^ (copy), li-is-ru-ga-me , li-da-ar-ga-am-ma , 
li-im-tu-ud , li-ti-in , Li-bu-us- ^ li-zu-ufa ( G0 Py)5 Li-zu-ur , -li-ri- 
ik, li-rx-is (CM xii) , li-zi-ib , li-ru-nim (Sg.?), Li-na-as , Li- 
^ ur "j li"b u ~ u ^ .(ES)j li-im -la-ma, -li-is-si ( Ur III, doubtful), li- 
is -me , li-it-bu . 


k) Attested in li-ik-nu-ku , li-il-gu-tu , li-is-tu-ru-nim , 11- 
ig-zu-zu , li-ti-nu , li-zu-fru , li-zu-ru , li-ru-u-nim (PI.?), li-is- 
bu, li-za-zu-ma , li-ip-te-u-ma , [l]i-it-ru-u-nim (PI. ?) , Ii~is-ba- 
al-ki-du . 

J>) Attested in li-il-gu-da , li-zu~b a « 

6) Attested in Iu-sa-bi-la?-kum . 

7) Attested in -li-la-bi-ir- (Ur III) , li-da-ni-in , li~sa- 
ki-id , li-a-feir (copy), 11 -s a-me -id-ma , li-si~rx-am , li-se -p -ri*- 
am, li-su-ri-am , li-su-ze-as-su-ni . 

8) Attested in li-rse^l-zi-u-nim-ma , li-se .. ^ -u-ni-kum-ma . 
The following uses of the Prec. are attested: lu-us-ku-ul-kum 

"may I weigh out," li-ti-in "may he give," li-is-bu "may they stay," 
li-da-ni-in "may he strengthen," li-sa-me~id "may he cause to 
stand*" It can be observed from these examples that lu + 3 a- in 
the Prec. of the 1st pers. yields lu- ( lumfeur ) as in Babylonian, 
and not la- ( lamfaur ) , as in Assyrian, Similarly, lu + ju- of the 
3rd pers. yields 11- ( lis lb , limafefair ) , as in Babylonian, and not 
lu- ( lusib , luma&fair ) , as in Assyrian. In connection with the Old 
Akkadian and Babylonian limafcblr it should be noted that this form 
goes back to lu-jumafokir , and not to lu-umal^ir , which allegedly 
changed to limakbir in analogy with lim&ur (as taken by Ungnad, 
Grammatik des Akkadischen, 3rd ed., p. li±, and others). 

With a Pass. Part, and adjective cf • : (-lu-)ba-li-it (Ur III), 
(Lu-)da-mi-iq (Ur III), (Lu-)sa-Iim , (Lu-)sa-lim (Ur III), (Lu-)da- 
na-at , (-lu-)da-ri (Ur III), (-iu-)ba-ni (Ur III), (Lu-)ba-na , 
(Lu-)da-na , (Lu-)na-da , lu tu-mu~at . With a substantive cf.: 
(Lu-)be-lu , lu GEM& (Ur III). 

f ♦ Prohibitive 

In the original Sargonic sources the Prohib. is written a 
before a vowel (in reality a weak consonant) but e before a conso- 
nant. Thus we have a i-ti-in /ajiddin / "may he not give," a e-ru- 
ub "may he not enter," a i-si-ir "may he not succeed," a ib-ra "may 
it not hunger," e tal-li-ik "may you not go," e da-ti-in "may you 
not give"; the only exception is a daq-bi "may you not say." 


In late copies of original sources we find: a u-gi-il 
/ajukil/ "may he not hold," a [u]?-si-si-ra "may they not make 
succeed," a el-binsia (with meaning unknown) , a_^ u-sa-zi-ik 
"may he not destroy," a GIN /a j ittallak/ "may he not walk" (once) 
as against e GIN (six times), 

ii. Stems 

The Stems I-IV, or Qal, Pi c el, Saf c el, Nif c al, appear in 
Old Akkadian, as in later periods, "but because of the scarcity of 
examples their exact meanings are sometimes difficult to establish. 

As noted above, the Pass. Part* (Stat.), Inf., and Imp v. of 
Stems II and III have the vowel u in forms muj^ur, mu^urum , 
mu^ir 9 sumjaur , sumfaarum , surabir (as in Babylonian) , not a of 
ma^or, sam&ur 3 etc. (as in Assyrian). 


The III Stem is formed throughout by the infix s; only In an 
Old Akkadian letter from the Gutian Period do we find forms with s, 
written ZU, in zu-si-ib-ma and zu-da-ri~ib . 

The unique occurrence of ni-se -^ -bi-lam , instead of the expected 
nu-se .. .. -bi-lam , was discussed on p. 165. 

In the IV Stem we have i-ka-ni-su i -ma /jja&an( i) suma?/ (doubtful, 

copy) , i~ga-ni-ik /ikkanik?/ , I-ba-Ii-is / ippalis /, ib-ba-al-zu-sum 

(Subj.), Na-ap-li-is- (Impv., Ur III), i-na?-zi?-ik /innasifr /, 

flnl-na-ze-ir /innagir/ , j-na-ze-ir (Ur III). 

For the T form the following important cases should be noted; 

For I t im -da-a^-za-ma "they (Du..) fought with each other" 

(copy); (persons) a-na GM lu it-tal-ku ; da-as-da-b[u] "you were 

silent"; FN na-da-nam iq-bi sum-ma i~ta-ti-in "PN told him to give; 

if he (then) gave (it)" (Ur III); PN ni-is LUGAL it-ma su-ma GEMjS 

a-ru-gi-ma ni-ir-da-si-i "if in the future? we should get (back) 

the slave-girl" (Ur III). Cf. also the difficult cases of i-da-jaa-az 

C-JJZ), e-dam-da ( M©?) , a&-da-tu? (P^), ir- ^-ti-ab (R'B?), li- 

^a-ar-ga-am-ma (TRK?), and the PN's Mi-it.'-lik , A-da-na^afr ( '-Ng) , 

Im-ti-dam (M^D), Dar-ti-bu (R^B?), and Ti-iz-gar (ZQE). 

For I : is ? -da-na-ba-ra-am (in a difficult context), as-da-na- 

ba-ra-ma (Ur III), and PN's Hi-da-frar (MgR, Ur III) and Am-da-Ii-ik 

(Ur III), Im -da-lik , Dam-da -lik , and- Mi/ke-da-lik « 


For II : us?-da?-li?-sa-ma "(they fought) for the third time" 
(Du#, copy) and perhaps hi 1?-da-za-bu ( 3 , 7 $P?) • 

For III : (MAS.ANSE a-na URU -Ik ) zu-da-rf-ib "bring the anjmals 
to the city I "; (l GANAM MI la ba-ti-tum . ...) us -da-za-ga-ar -si-ma 
"one black virgin ewe . . . . he will cause to be . . . . ," and perhaps 

us-da-a-bi-la (' PL?, Subj.). 

5* Classes 

a # Strong Verbs 

BLf "to live": 

BTQ? "to break": 
DGL "to look": 

DMQ "to be good"; 

DMR? : 
DNK? : 

GML "to spare": 

GMR "to conquer": 


GSM? : 

GSR or KSR: 

gBL "to rob": 

PT "to run away"; 

gLQ "to destroy": 
PS "to submit": 
HJStt "to desire": 
SSL "to grind": 
KBS "to tread": 

Li-ib-lu-ufc, (-lu-)ba-li-it (Stat., Ur III); 

[ib]?-tu-ku (Subj.) 
-du-gul (impv.), -tu-gul (Ur III) 
Da-am-ku-um (Ur III), -da-me-iq, Da-mi -iq 

(Ur III), -dam-ga-at; du-mu-ki-im 
I-da-ni-k(i-x-li) (Ur III), (DINGIR-)id-ni-ik 

(Ur III) 
a-ga-ma-lu-su, , Ig-mul- (Ur III), Ig-mu-lum, 

-ga-mi-el, -ga-mi-il (Ur III), (La-)ga-ma-al 
i-ig-mu-ur (copy), Ga-me-ru-um, Ga-mi-ru-um 
dag-ru-Fsa1?-am, ig?-ru-sa-am 
U-sa-ag-sim (Ur III) 
a-ga-sa-ar, ik-sur, ik-su-ra, ik-su,-ra (Subj.), 

-ga-se-ir (Ur III), -ga-si-ir (Ur III) 
a&-bi-lu -si-ma (Subj., CM), Ifc-bu-lum (Ur III), 

&a-bi-el (Part*, Der), ga-bi-lum, JJa-ab-lum, 

&a-ab-lim u Jja-bi-el-tim (Der) 
Qa-ab-tum (Ur III), &a-ab-tu (PI.), -&a-bi-dt 

(Ur III); &u-bu-ut, &u-bu-tM 
Iij-lu-uq; mu-fra-li-iq (Der) 
i-&a-ni-su, -ma (copy. Nif c al) 
afr-si-bu (Subj . , CM) , &a-as-&( a-me-ir) (Ur III) 
&a-sa~lim (inf.) 
Ik?-bu-s(i-na-at) (Ur III), Ku-bu-us (Ur III), 

ga-ba-zi-im (inf.) 

KLM "to show 11 : 
KNK "to seal": 
KNS "to bow down": 
KRB "to pray": 

K§R "to bind": 

KSD "to reach": 

LBN "to make bricks": 
LBR "to be old": 

im " bad": 
LPT "to touch": 
LQT "to pick": 

LTK "to test?": 

■MSB "to receive": 

KQ§ "to strike": 

MLK "to counsel": 

MQT "to fall": 
MR§ "to be sick"? 


u-gal-la-mu-ma (Subj., copy), u-gal-lim, u-ga-lim 

li-ik-nu-ku (PI,) 5 i-ga-ni-ik (Nif c al?) 

Ku-un-si(-ma-tum) (Impv., Ur III) 

ik-ru-«ib-ma (Der) , Ku-ru-ub- (Irapv.), (l-sar-) 
kur-ba-as (Ur in), (E-la-ag-)ku-ru-ba (Ur III) 

(VciMik-zur (ITT III/2 6581;+), (Sa-u-Oik- 
zur (ITT Il/l 3519 rev J, ( LUGAL-) ik-zur 
(Jean, SA LXVII i) , (NIN-) ik-zur (Nies, TOT 97), 
all Ur III, Cf. Falkenstein, NSGU II p. 118, 
on the reading and interpretation of the names* * 

ik-su-tu (Subj.), Ik-su-tum, Ik-su-tum (Ur III), 
ga^si-id-, -ga-si-id (Ur III), (i-lu-)ga-sa-ad 

la-bi-in (Part., CM) 

La-bi-ru-um (Ur III); (^u-^N.ZU-)li-la-bi-ir(-&a- 
da-am) (Ur III) 

lam-nam, la-mu-dam, li-mu-dam (Ur III) 

u-sa-al-bi-tu (Subj . , copy) 

il-gu-ut (copy), li-il-gu-ut (copy), tal-gu-ut 
(Fern,, Mari), li-il-gu-tu (PI.), li-il-ku-du 
(PI., Ur III), li-il-gu-da (Du.) li-il-gu- 
da(ra) (Du., copy), li-il-ku-da (Du,, Mari) 

■la-da-ki-im (inf.) 

i~ma-ka-ru (PI.), am-^ur, ira-&ur, li-im-&u-ra- 
an-ni, im-&u-ru (Subj.), dam-&ur, in-bu-ru 
(Pl#), im-&u-ru-nim, im-fcu-ra (Du.), Htta-ftir, 
ma-&i-ru (Constr. St. PI.), ma-&i-ra (Constr. 
St. Du.), ma-ki-ir-da (Constr. St. Du. Fern.), 
(La-)ma-ba-ar (Ur III); Mi-da-^ar (Ur III) 

im-&a-zu (Subj.), im-fca-zu-na (Subj., Der), ma- 
fci-ig (Constr. St. Part., Der), ma J -a&J -za-at; 
im (DU)-da-ala-za-ma (Du., copy) 

Im-lik(-E-a) (Ur III), Dam-lik, -ma-lik, Ma-li- 
kum; Am-da-li-ik (Ur III), Im (DU)-da-lik, 
Dam-da-lik, Mi-it I-lik; Mi-da-lik, Me-da-lik 

u -s a-am -k i -it ( c opy ) , u-s a-am-k 1 -it-z u ( c opy) 

ma-ar-za-ma (Du.) 

PgR "to come 

Hfi "to fear": 

PLQ "to kill": 
PIS "to look": 

PQD "to entrust": 
PRK "to set apart" j 

PRS "to withhold": 

PSg "to be quiet": 


PSf "to erase": 

P*JR "to deduct": 

QjDS "to be pure": 

RGM "to claim": 

RH§ "to flood": 

RKN? : 

RKS "to tie": 

RMK "to wash": 

§BT "to seize": 

§^R "to be small": 
§RS? "to shine": 
SBR "to break": 
SffJ "to jump": 
SKN "to place": 

SIM "to be well": 


lp-&ur-, ip-&u-ru-nim-ma (PI.) 
■-i-ba-la-ajj- (Ur III), Ba-lu-ub~> (Be-lx-) 

I-ba-li-is , ib-ba~al-zu-sum (Subj . ) , Na-ap- 

li-is- (Ur III) 
ap-ru-uk-su (Ur III) ,■ Ip-ru-uk, Bu-ru-uk (Ur III), 

ip-ri-ka-am-ma (CM) 
da-ap-ru-us, ip-ru-us, li-ip-ru-us (CM), Ba- 

da-ba-sa-fci-ni, Ba-sa-aJi- (impv.), Ba-sa-a^- 1 , 

Bi-sa-afc- (Ur III), Bi-sa-aU- (Ur in) 

bi-si, -rfc-ma (impv., copy) 
i-ba-ta-ar (Ur III) , li-ip-du-ur 

Ga-da-su-um (p. 168); gu-du-si-is, Gu-du-si (Ur III) 
a-ra-ga-mu (Subj., Ur III), (AR^D-) ir-gu-um (Ur III) 
li-ir-Ui-is (CM) 

ir-ku-us (copy), ir-ku-zu (PI*) 
Ir-mu-uk( -ir-ra) (Ur III) 
a§-ba-zu (Ur III), is-ba-at, [l]i-is-ba-at, 

Za-ba-at- (impv.), za-ab-t[i]-su-rni?-til? 

(impv. Fern.) 

Zu-ru-u& (Impv.?, Ur III) 
li-is-birv (copy) 
a?-sa-ga-nu (Subj.), i-sa-ga-nu-ma (Subj., 

copy), is-ku-un, is-ku-nu (Subj.), is-ku- 

nu-fsil (PI.), is-gu-na-ma (Du., copy), su- 

gu~un (impv., copy),, sa-ki-in (Part., Der) 
Is-lam(-Gl), Sa-lljn(-^L-Uu), Sa-al-m(ab) (Ur III), 

Sal-mu-um (Ket. 86.11.13U) , sal-ma-at, 

sa-lim-da" (Du. Fern.); u-sa-lim 

SLQ? "to cut off": 

315 »to be third": 


SMf "to pluck": 

SPK "to pour": 

SPR "to send": 

SQL "to weigh": 
SRK "to donate": 
SfP "to preserve 

S.TR "to write": 

TBL "to carry away": 
TKL "to trust": 


fBU "to slaughter": 

TED "to send": 

ZBL? "to carry": 


ZMl "to sing": 

ZRQ? "to pour": 

(J-li-)sa-li-iq (Ur III), (l-li-)sa-liq 
us?-da?-li?-sa-ma (Du., copy) 
(i-la-)sa-ma-ar (Ur III) 

iSHfdU-tu (PI.) 

is-bu-uk (copy) 

sa-bi-ir (copy; as-da-na-ba-ra-ma (Ur III), 

[i]-sa?-gal, lu-us-ku-ul-kum, da-as-ku-ul (Fern.?) 
asj-ru-uk (copy), li-is-ru-ga-me 

Is-dup-, l)a-as-dup-ba, Sa-a^-pum, Sa-at~be(- 

DINGIR) , Sa-afc-be ( -DINGIR) 
i-sa-da-ru (Subj . ) , [a]s-tu-ru (Subj » ) , ' li-is- 

tu-ru-nim (PI.) 
it-ba-al, it-ba-lu (Subj.) 
A -da-gal, -da-gal (impv.), -ti-gal (Impv., Ur III), 

Da-ki-il( -^n-lil) , Ta-ki-il(-i-li-su) (Ur III), 

-dak-la-ku (Ur III), -da-ak-la-ak-sum (Ur III); 

U-ta-ak-ki-il (Ur III), Du-kil- (impv.) 
I-da-ra-ak(-i-li) (Ur III), It-ra-ak( -1-I1) (Ur III), 

(J^a-Ha-ra-ak (Ur III); li-da-ar-ga-ammia 
i-da-ba-afc-si-ma, ri^-bul-Jju (PI.) 
tu-ur. -da (impv.) 
za?-bi-lu (PI. Gonstr. St.) 
us -da-za-ga-ar-s inna 
1-za-mar; u-sa-az-me-ir 

3 DD? "to be quick 1 ': 

'LL? "to rejoice": 
> LL "to be pure": 
^RR "to curse": 
BIL "to pour out": 
DBB "to speak": 
DLL "to praise": 
DNN- "to be strong": 

b. Geminates 

see verbs primae * 
see verbs primae * « 



see verbs primae 3 
see verbs primae D 


u-da-bi-bu-si-ma (PI, , uncertain) 
A-da-Ial, ad-lul, Da-ad-lul-tum, (i-lu-)da-lil? 
Id-ni-in- (Ur III), da-num, da-nin, -da-nam, 
Da-an-, -da-na-at, -da-mx; li-da-ni-in 

GZZ "to shear": 

BBS "to think": 

KLL "to be complete": 

MDD "to iriGasure": 


PSS "to anoint": 

QDD "to bow": 

SDD "to measure": 

SLL "to carry away?": 

li-ig-zu-zu (PI. ) 
Hj-zu-zum, gu-zu-us- (Impv. ), -fca-zi-is (Ur III).; 

tf-sa-ak-li-il (Ur III) 
i~ma-da-ad, im-tu-ud, li-im-tu-ud 
(^M-)pa-ll-il (Ur III) 
I-ba-sa-as (MW) 
is-du-ud, is-du-da (Subj.)> is-du-du (Pl#), 

sa-ti-da (Part* Du») 
is-lu-ul, Da-as-lul-tum 

c. Verbs Primae n 

N 3 > "to turn": 

N 3 B? : 

N* D "to praise": 

N 3 6 £ "to rest": 

N D 6 Q "to lament?": 

N^R "to smite": 

N 3 6 R "to shine": 

N> R: 

N%S "to live": 

NB -, "to name": 

MP "to throw**: 

TOT "to give": 

see verbs secundae 3 , _ 
— >-5 

see verbs secundae D 

see verbs secundae 9 - ~ 

see verbs secundae ^ 

see verbs secundae \ 

see verbs secundae \ ^ 

see verbs secundae \ 

see verbs secundae D 

see verbs secundae 3 , _ 

see verbs tertiae j> ,, 

see verbs tertiae 3 

N®)? "to head": 

a-na-da-kum, a-na-da-nu-kum (Subj«), da-na-da- 
nu (Subj.), i-na-da-an, i-na-da?-nu-sum 
(SubjO, at-ti-kum, fal-ti-sum, a-ti-na 
(Subj.)> a-ti-nu-sum (Subj.), da-ti-in (2nd 
Masc), i-ti-in, li-ti-in, i-ti-nam, i-ti- 
nam-ma (copy), i-ti-sum (copy), it-ti-sum 
( copy) , i-ti-nu-ma (Subj . ) , i-ti-nu-sum 
(Subj.), i-ti-na (Subj.), da-ti-in (3rd Fern.), 
da-at-ti-in-sum-ma (copy), i-ti-in (3rd Fern.), 
li-ti-nu (PI.), i-ti-na-sum (Du.), i-ti-in 
(Impv.), na-ti-in, na-da-nam (Ur III), na-da- 
ni-is (Ur III)- i-ta-ti-in (Ur III) 

I-bi-id-AjTU (Ur III) 

NQS: na-fca-zi (Inf.) 

NKR "to be differ- 
ent", "to rebel": da-na-kir (Feitu), i-gi-ru-us (PI.), na-ki-ir- 

ma (copy),' na-ga-ra-am (copy), na-<ak-ru- 
uz-zu (copy) 
I-bi-iq-, En-bf-iq-, Na-bi-kum (Ur III?); 

(Be-lam-)nu-bi-iq (Impv.) 
Li-bu-us ( -i^a-um) 
see verbs tertiae 5 „ 


NPL "to tear out": 

NPQ? : 

NPS "to breathe": 

NQ* "to libate": 


NSft "to tear out": 

N§R "to watch": 

NS^ "to bear": 
NT*, "to be suited": 
NZK or NSK "to 
damage" : 

na-aq-tim, -na-aq-tum; li-sa-ki-id 
i-zu-u&-ma (copy), li-zu-u& (copy), li-zu-Jiu 

(PI.) j li-zu-fca (Du.), na-zi-i&$ i-na?-zi?-i& 
da-na-za-ar, i-na-za-ar, I-zu-ur-, E-zur- (Ur III 

li-zu-ur, li-zu-ru (PI.), u-zu^ur (Impv.)? 

U-zur- (Ur III), Na-as-ru-um, -na-zi-irj 

flnl-na-ze-ir, i-na-ze-ir (Ur III) 
see verbs tertiae * o 
see verbs tertiae jL . 

u-sa-za-ku-ni (Subj.), u-sa-za-ku-ma (Subj., 
copy), u-sa-zi~ik (copy) 

Discussion : The verb nadanum forms Pres, inaddan (written 
a-na-da-kum , da-na-da-nu , i-na-da-^an) , Pret. iddin (written a-ti-na , 
da-ti-in , i-ti-in , etc.), Impv, idin (written i-ti-in ) , as against 
Babylonian inaddin , iddin , idin and Assyrian iddan, iddin , din. 
Inaddan is used archaically in. the OB hymn (VAS X 211* ii 9 and vii 13). 
The NB forms i-nam-da-as-su , a-nam-dak-ka-su-nu-tu , ad-dan-ka represent 
contracted forms of inartd(in)assu 3 add(in)akka 3 etc. By analogy the 
All. forms inandan and iddan are used. Otherwise the KB forms of Pres, 
and Pret. are inandin and iddin respectively. This conclusion was 
reached after an examination of hundreds of Assyrian Dictionary cards 
undertaken some years ago by Dr. T« Jacobsen and the author. 

The forms of other verbs primae n appear as in later periods. 


d. Quadri co ns ant als 

The few occurrences of us-ba-la-ga-du (Subj.), ful-us-ba-la- 
ga-at-ma, li-is-ba-al-ki-du (PI. ) , ib-ba^al-gi-it -ma , ib-ba-al-ki- 
da-an-ni-ma (CM), [m]u-ba-*al-ki-tum , us-ga-en (copy) yield nothing 
unusual in comparison 'with later periods. 

e. Weak Verbs 

Note: The definition of a weak root as a root with any of the 
so-called weak consonants D -|-* 7 (cf # e.g. Ungnad, Grammatik des 
Akkadischen, 3rd ed. , pp. 62f.) cannot be applied to Old Akkadian, 
where most of the so-called weak consonants behave like strong con- 
sonants. Strictly speaking, the only real "weak" consonants in Old 
Akkadian are K- (=w 5 really jj) and ^ (-j» really i). 

i. Verbs Primae \ p 

^HB "to be 

different?": u-a-&a-ru (copy), li-a-fcir (copy), u-&u-ru-tum 

*-,&£ "to take": a-&u-uz, a-bu-z[a-a]m (doubtful), i-&u-*iz; 

i-da-&a-az; u-sa-&i-su-ni /usa 3 &iz-suni/ 

° ? LK "to go": a-la-kam, i-la-ak, e-la-kam, i-la-gu (PI.), 

il-la-gu (PI., CM), e-la-ga-LAM+KUR (Du.), 
a-li-ku (Subj.), al-li-ku (Subj.), tal-li- 
ik, i-li-ik-ma, i-li-ik (copy) , i-li-kam, 
i-li-gfa-nil (Subj. Sg.), il-li-kam-ma, 
li-li-ik, li-li-kam?-me, i-li-ku (Subj.), 
i-li-ku (Subj., copy), i-li-ga-ni (Subj. Du.), 
al-kam-ma (impv.), a-la-kam (inf.), a-li- 
ik (Part., copy); it-tal-ku 

3 2 LL? "to rejoice": I-lul( -DINGIR) , Ll-lul(-dan) /Elul-dan?/ 

^MR "to see": da-mu-urnma, da^mu-ru (Subj.), i-mu-ru (Subj.), 

innu-ru (PI.), e-mu-ru, Anmur- (Irapv.), 
A^ni-ir- (Part.), (&a-as-fc)a-*ie-ir (Ur III) 

^NS "to sigh": A-na-ab- (Ur III); A-da-na-ak 

^PL?: us-da-a-bi-la (Subj.) 

^RK "to be long": 
'RR "to curse": 
^SR "to provide?' 1 : 

-li-ri-ik, Ar-kum, A-ri~ik- 
li-ru-ru-us (PI.) 

(SN-)a-si-ra-ni, (i-li-)as-ra-ni (Ur III) 
Discussion ? The verbs primae D - - behave like verbs with strong 
consonants, the only noticeable differences being: forms i^mur , 
e D mur ( imur , emur ) , illak , ellak, showing the influence of D 1 ^ on the 
prefix i-j the Impv. in the form amur , alik , and asir ; and the irreg- 
ular Pret. illik to the Pres. illak. 

ii. Verbs Primae ° 


VBR? "to cross": 
>DD? "to be quick": 

D 3 DS "to be new": 
D jL 3 7 "to come up": 

\ ^LL "to be pure": 
^MD "to stand": 

D jN D 7 ? "to change": 
V5N& "to be weak": 

% ^PR "to provide": 
' ^PS "to make": 

>RB "to combat": 

■*-RB "to enter": 

'RS "to plough": 



$-da-ad(-ze-na-<at) (Ur III, unpubl. NBC tablet, 
from Hallo) 

u-ud-di-is (CM) 

li-li-am, a-li-dam, e-li-[tum]? (Ur III), 

el-lum; u-li-il (copy) 

e-dam-da (doubtful); u-sa-mi-id (copy), li -sa- 
me-id-ma, Su-mi-id- (Ur III), Su-me-id- 
(Ur III), Zu(m) -mi-id- (Ur III) 

i-ni (copy), e-ni (copy), Of, note on N%* 7 

-te-ni-is (Ur III), -te-in-is (Ur III), -e -ni- 
ls (Ur III, 1st or 3rd pers.), -i-ni-is 
(Ur III) 

E-bi-ir-, E-bir^- 

i-bi-is, e-bu-us (1st pers., CM), i-bu-us 
(3rd pers.), [e]-bi-is (Part,, CM), ip-sum 

(La-) D a-ra-ab, (La-)a-ra-ab, (La-) D a~ra-bu-um, 
(L)a-ra-bu-um (Ur III) 

ni-e-ra?-[ab]?, e-ru-ub, e-ru-ub; u-sa-n-ib, 
u-sa-ri-ib, u-sa-ri-[bu] (PI., copy), 
[u]?-fsa?-ri1-ba (Subj.)$ zu-da-ri-ib 

a-ru-us (Pret.), D a-ru-us (impv,), e-ra-si-is (In 

^ ^RS "to wish": a-n-is-ga, te-ir-ri-is, -e-ri-is, e-n-su!-ga 

(Pl.)j Ir-sum 
> §D "to reap": -e-ze-id (Ur III), S-zi-tum (Ur III) 

\ ^P "to take 

away": i-ti-ru (Subj.) 

°yZQ "to leave": [e]-zi-ba-am (CM), li-zi-ib, Iz-bu-um (Ur III); 

Su-zu-bi (Ur III) 
Discussion : The prefix of the 3rd pers. appears as e- in K-bi-ir- , 
e-bi-is , e-ru-ub , -e-ri-is , and perhaps e~ni , but as i- in i-bu-us , 
i-ti-ru, and perhaps i-ni . The only example for the 2nd pers* is te- 

ir-ri-is. The prefix of the 1st pers, Sg. is regularly a-. Note the 

~-*~*" "■ "*"■""**" v v 

important difference in the spelling of a-ru-us /a^ rus / in the Pret. , 

bu ^ 3 a-ru-us / 3 arus / in the Imp v., found in the same text (JHAS 1932 

p. 296: k 9 9, 15) . The Inf. appears in the forms erSsum, and arabum, 

while the form e -de -sum-ma is better explained as eddesumma than as 

Inf. edesum plus ma. Cf. p. 126 # Stem II u-li-il (for u c allil ) , 

fl-da-ad- (for u c addad ) ? and u-ud-di-is (for u c aadis ) appear only in 

Ur III and CM of OB origin. The combination of sa + ■* ^ of Stem III 

does not change to se under the influence of j^>^ # 

iii. Verbs Primae \ 

D ^ > R "to go off": u-wa-e-ru-us (Subj.) 

' 6 BL "to bring": u-ba-al, u-bil, U-bil-, fl-bil- (Ur III), u-bi- 

lam, u-bi-lam, u-ub-lam, ub-lu (PI.), u-ub- 

lu (Subj.), u-bi-lu-nim (PI.), -bi-la-ni 

(impv.), -bi-la-ni, wa-bil- (Part.); -mu-da- 

bil, -mu-tab-bil (Ur III); du-sa-ba-lam 

(Ur III), lu-sa?-bi-la?-kum and lu-sa-[bi?- 

la]?-kum (1st pers; in the same text, EK III 

PI. XI W. 1929, 160), li-se n -bi-lam, ni- 

se.-.-bi-lam, [su]-bi-lam (impv.), su-bi-lam 

(Ur III), su~bi-lim (impv. Fern.) 

a ,GM?: u-wa-sa-mu (PI.) 


° 6 LD "to beget": Tu-li-id-, U-li-id-, Va-al-t(i-lum) (Ur III), 

A-li-id- (Ur III), a-la-da-am (CM) 
W"\ M ^° swear " : u-ma, u-ma, u-ma (all 1st pers.) 

* 6 P D 7 "to shine": 
',QR "to be dear"! 

D /-R°^ "to bring": 

5 >-RD "to go down": 
*$*1 "to go out": 

S 6f 



' 6 SB 



' 6 SR: 

3 rjO £ || . 

6 x 

bo find": 



be exceed- 


-mu-bi; Su-pi-um 

ug^-gi^ (CM) 

(A-&u-)wa-gar (Ur III), (A-&u-)a-gar (Ur III), 
(A-fcu-)ba-ear (Ur III), Wa-gar-tum (Ur III), 
Ba-gar-tum (Ur III) ; -su-kir /gir (Ur Hi), 
Su?-gir-, -su-kir (doubtful) 

u-ru, u-ru-^am, u-ru-a-axn-ma (copy), u-ru-us 
(copy), li-ru-nim, li-ru-u-nim (Pl«), nu-ru- 
am; mu-dar~n (copy); li-si-ri-am, li-se--- 
ri-am, li-su-ri-am 

u-ur-da-ni (Subj . ) ; u-su-ri-dam, u-su-ri-id 
(Ur III) 

U-za-, U-ze-^tf-ze- (Ur III), U-zi- (Ur III), 
tf-zi- (Ur III), I-zi-, I-ze- (Ur III, see 
discussion below); wu-zu-is; u-su-ze, u-su- 
zi (copy), u-su-zi-amnma (copy), u-se-*.-zi, 
li-su-ze-as-su-ni, li-Fse^l-zi-u-nim-ma (PI.) 

u-zi-ip, Zi-ip- (Impv # , Ur III); Fu1?-da-za-bu 

tu-sa-bu (Subj,), u-sa-ab, u-sa-bu (PI,), li- 
is-bu (PI.), wa-si-bu (Part.)? zu-si-ib-ma 

ft-a-s e -ir ( -Da-ga-an) 

U-da-, tj-ta- (Ur III), fl-da- (Ur III), Tu-da- 
( doubtful) 


Wa-dar-, Wa-dur-, ¥a-da-ru-um (Ur III), Wa-at- 
ru-ura (Ur III), Ba-da-ru-um (Ur III), Ba- 
da-ri-im, Wa-at-ra-at (Ur III); fu-wa-ti- 

ru?-sum1 (BE I 12); u-sa-ti-ir 
Discussion : The finite forms of Stem II appear with -wa- in 
u-wa-e-ru-us , fu*wa-ti-ru?^sum1 , u-wa-ga-mu , and without it in u-zi-ip 
and ug^gi* (CM), Note also Impv. Zi-ip- and Part, -mu-bi . In Stem 
III the infix su /su/ is found in li-su-ri-am , u-su-ri-dam^ u-su-ze , 
alternating with si /se/ in li-se^-bi-lam , li-si-ri-am , li-se - ^-ri- 
ain * u-se . -zi . A possible occurrence of sa /sa/ in lu-sa-bi-la?-kum 
is lifted above. Note also Impv, su-bi-lam , su-bi-lim 3 -su-kir , zu- 
si-ib-ma , and Pass. Part. Su-pi-mm . There is no clear evidence that 
I-zi- , I-ze- represent allomorphs of U-ze- , tJ-ze- , tf-zi- , fi-zi- . 


t "& t 

The unique occurrence of ni-se ... -bi-lam for nu-se -.-j -bi-lam is dis- 
cussed above on p. 165. 

iv. Verbs Primae ^ n 

J « D "to have" 


ti-da, I-da-; -rou-da 

ti-su, i-su, I-su- (Ur III), ni~su, -ni-su 

(Ur III) 
i-si-ir, I-sar-, I-sa-ru-um; us-su-ru (CM); 
U-su-si-ir(-ti-ni), [u]?-si-si~ra (copy), 
Su-si-ra; mu-us-ti-si-firl (Der) 
Discussion : As with verbs primae \ the infix su alternates with 
se in U-su-si-ir- as against [u]?-si-si-ra. 

>SR "to be right"! 

v. Verbs Primae * 

D BK: 

5 BT?: 

> M* : 
x x 

I-bu-ku-um (Ur HI). 
I-bi-it(-ir-ra) (Ur III) 
I-mi-, i-me-, I-me- 

vi. Verbs Secundae \* 

M'D "to be plenti- 
N^D "to praise": 
R'M "to love": 

Ma-ad-; Im-ti-dam (Ur III) 
Na-id-, -na-da; -nu-id 

e-ra-a-am-su, ir-am-, I-ra-am- (Ur III), ir-a- 
imi-um, ir-ra-am-, -ra-^am (Ur III), -ra-ma 
(Ur III), Ra-im- (Part.) 
"Is-a-lum, Sa-il x -tum (Ur III) 
da-sa-am (Pres.), i-sa-am (Pret. , Ur III) 
Discussion : Medial 2 1-2 behaves like a stron S consonant. Note 
Im-ti-dam as if with medial \j 9 instead of *Imta'idam. For other 
forms of M'J) mediae ^ in the younger dialects of Akkadian, cf . 
von Soden, GAG §98i. 

S'L "to ask": 
§\M "to buy": 


vii. Verbs Secundae \? 

B\L. "to rule": 
B^oR "to choose": 
L° 3 K D 7 ?"to be 

strong" : 

I'M "to taste": 
N^yHo turn": 

N^R "to smite": 
N'Js "to live": 
RV 3 7 "to pasture": 
R' B? "to compen- 
sate" : 

R'Q "to be far": 

R 3 iS "to rejoice": 

§ D »N "to load": 

5°. > "to search": 
U 7 

e-be-el (CM), i-be-AL (Pret., copy) 

i-bi-ru (Subj.), bi-ru 


fl-e-, i-if- (ur III), La-i-um (Ur III), (L-sar-) 
la-e/i (Ur III), (i-sar-)li-i (Ur HI); fl- 

da-la- 3 a-mu (Subj.) 

na-e (Part.)* Since the meaning "to turn" fits 
the context better than that of "to change," 
the forms i-ni (copy) and e-ni (copy) may be 
derived from N D ^ D ^ rather than from 3 , N D „ 


3 7 
en-a-ru, en^a-ra (Du.) 

h" r 


ir-e-, I-ri-, -ri-i-su, Ri-fil-tum 

I-ri-ib (Ur III), ir-e-ib (Ur III), Ir^-e-ib 
(Ur III), ir-ib (Ur III), ir-e-ib (Ur III), 
Ir-ri-ib (Ur III), Da-ri-bu, Ri-pum (Stat.?), 
(Si-)ri-ba-at (Stat.?, Ur III) ; ir-^-ti-ab, 
Dar-ti-bu. For the root RM3, rather than 
R 3 «B, cf Ir c ib , etc., and the noun ru c ubba 3 um 

Mu-ri-iq(-Ti-id-ni-im) (Ur III) 

I-ri-is-, Da-ri~is (Ur III) 

i-za-na-ma (copy) 

Is -e-, I-is-e- 

Dis cussion : Observe that da-la- ^a-mu from L*Jb and Da-ri-is- from 

J ~ 

R 3 ,S remain uninfluenced by *> in contrast to te-ir-ri-is from V JRS. 
The prefix i- for the 3rd pers. remains unchanged throughout. We should 
expect mura cc iq in the Sargonic Period for the attested Mu-ri-iq- in 
Ur III. Observe, however, that verbs secundae * frequently behave 
like verbs secundae \j> as in ibiru , biru , also ibiar in Gappadocian, 
from Bgft, ir c lb , but irtiab, from R#B?, in c ar beside later inir and 
majjarum , from NJJR. Cf. also the discussion on verbs tertiae \t* 


viii. Verbs Secundae * , 

Vz'y? "**> speak": 

B *6*l Hto comett: 
B* 6 R "to be firm": 

B'JS "to give* 1 : 

K^L "to hold": 

K> N "to be firm": 

L> 6 B? : 

M 3 6 T "i 

N D 6 S "to rest": 

M 3 6 T "to die": 

N D 6 Q "to lament?": 
N D 6 R "to shine": 

Q» 6 D 7 "to wait": 
S' 6 R: 

T* 6 R "to return": 

Z° 6 Z "to stand": 

Z^Z "to divide": 


I-ba-um, I-ba-tum 

I-pu-ur?-, Id -bur-, Da-bur- (Ur III) 
■ a-bu-us (ES), 1-Ijm-us , li-fcu-us 

u-ga-al, u-ga-lu (PI,, copy), [t]u-gi-xl, 
u-gi-il, u-gi-il (copy), u-ki-il-si-im- 
ma (CM) 

I-gu-num, I-kiK-Amj), I-ku-un- (Ur III), 
Ta-ku-um(Hna-tum) (Ur III), Ku-un( -Sa-lim) 
(lmpv # ), Ku-na(-ma-tum) (Ur III), -gi-in, 
-ki-in (Ur III), Gi-num-, gi-nu-tum, gi- 
nu-tim; u-ga-nu, U-gi-in-, u-gi-in-sum, 
Tu-ki-in- (Ur III), Gi-in(-us-sa-am), Gi- 
n(u-us-sa-am), Ki?-nam- (lmpv.), Ki-in- 
(Ur III) 

La-wi-pufml, La-wi-ib-tum, La-wi-ib-tum 

I-mu-tum, fi1?-mu-tu (Subj.) 

Nu-iife- (Ur III, Impv.), Ne-b(i-lum) (Ur III); 
Mu-ni-bu-um (Ur III) 

' I-nJUi-a-na-aq (Ur III) 

Na-wi-ir-, Na-me-ir-, Na-mi-r(x-lum) , -na-bi-ir, 
perhaps -nam-mir (all Ur III) 

u-ga-e (copy) 

Sa-wi-ru-um; Mu-sa-wi-ir (Ur III), Mu-sa-xr- 

I-dur-, I-tu-ru-um (Ur III), Tu-ra-am(- ( T)a-gan) 
(Ur III), (i-lx-)tu-ra-am (Ur III), Tur-am- 
(Ur III), Tur-am- (Ur III), Tu-ra- (Ur III), 
dul-a-rx-su (copy); u-te-ra/ru (Subj«, Ur III), 

* u-ta-i[r] (CM), u-te-ir (CM) 

i-za-az, i-za-zu-ni (Subj..), .li-za-zu-ma (PI.), 
[iz-z]i-za-am (CM), li-zi-iz? (copy, or li- 
zi-it?, S^T); mu-za-zu (Part.); us-zi-iz; 

a^zu-uz (CM) 

Discussion t Observe the strong verbs Na-wi-ir-, perhaps also 
La-wi-puTm! , Sa-wi-ru-um , as against the normal Pass. Part, of the 
weak verbs secundae \ in the form kin. There are no examples of 
Pres. to show whether the form is ikan, as in Babylonian, or ikuan, 
ikuwan as in Assyrian. It may be suggested, because of the existence 
of the Old Akkadian Inf. tuarum in verbs secundae \ and of the form 
irtiab in verbs secundae \ ( see discussion of verbs secundae \ ^), 
that the Old Akkadian form was ikuan . Note, however, that OB has 
iriab and riabum , but itar and tarum . Similarly OB has rabum in 
Norn, but rabjam in Ace. The Pret. of Stem II appears as ukil, uk£n , 
also ubin (under verbs secundae .\) , as in later Babylonian, not 
uka D ^il , uka 03 in , as in the Assyrian dialect. The forms u-ta-i[r] 
and u-te-ir occur in the CM, written in the OB Period. The form 
u-ra-is-ma (under verbs secundae * ) occurs in an OB copy from Ur 
and has no clear etymology; instead of \ « it may have \ ? as 
the medial consonant. The only verb secundae K treated as a strong 
verb in Stem II is u-ga-e from uqawwi j . The forms of Impv. kin ' 
and Part, munlbum , muqipum agree with later Babylonian, and not 
Assyrian, where they would occur as ka^in , muna^ifaum , muqa^ipum , 
respectively. Note also the Pret. form izzaz , and a difficult form 
written ([....] uTU) u-«sa-za-za-suv , most probably from ZVZ. * 

ix. Verbs Secundae ^7 

B^N?: i-bi-na-ma (Du.)j U-bi-in(-LUGAL-ri) * 
B D „T "to pass the 

night": ba-dam (Impv.) 

D^N "to judge": i-din, i-ti-nu (Subj.), ti-ni (Impv.) 

Q^JP "to trust": da-ki-ba-an-ni, -gi-pum, Ki-pum, -gi-ip 

(Ur III); mu-gi-bu (Ur III, Part.) 

Q 3 J3 "to present": a-ki-is-, i-ki-is, -i-ki-sa-am (Ur III), i-ki- 

su-sum (Subj. , copy), Gi-sum 
R^-B? "to compen- 
sate": see R D JB? 
§ D 7 3 "to laugh": a~ze-&a-me 
S D 7 M' M to fix": I-si-im-, I-sim- 
S'T "to leave": a-si-tu (Subj.), li-zi-it? (S'T?, copy, or li-zi-iz?) 

T 3 J3 "to be good": 

Z'R "to hate": 

I-ti-ib- (Ur III), I-dib- (Ur III), Da-pum, 

-da-ab (Ur III), -da-bat (Ur III); ti-ib 

I-zi-ir( -gul-la-zi-in) 

Discussion: See discussion on verbs secundae *•• 

x. Verbs Secundae ' 

V D R "to go off" j 

O X 

u-wa-e-ru-us (Subj.) 

Da-na-ab-sum, (Da-ri-)lu-na-ab, (La-)na-ab 
(Ur III), (PU\SA-)na-ab (Ur III), (La-)ni-bu 
(Ur III); Tu-da-na-ab-sum 
u-ra-is-ma (copy) 
is (lAM+KUR)-ar, is -a-ru (Subj.), is -ar-ru 

(Subj . ) , es -a-ru (Subj • ) t sa-ir 
I-zi-in- (Ur III), Te-zi-in- (Ur III), Te-ze-in- 
(Ur III), Ta-ze-in- (Ur III) 
Discussion : Note the spelling with double consonants in is ^-ar-ru . 
Ungnad, Grammatik des Akkadischen, 3rd ed. , p. 20, explains such cases 
as iprussu as "Pausalformen," while von Soden, GAG §20g, justifies the 
double consonants as due to "Akzentverschiebung." Cf . also my note in 
BO XII 101. For a third possibility see above p. U2, where such 
spellings as im-kur-ru 5 I-sar-ru-um , etc., are fully discussed. 

L 'x B: 
N 'x B? 

x v 

R 3 S "to smite": 

S> R "to battle": 

Z 3 N (or > SN?) 
x 3* 

xi» Verbs Tertiae ^^ 

D ,M D 1 "to swear": 
> § 3 "to go out": 

B 3 , 3 "to come": 

O 1 

BR 3 -, "to hunger": 
ML\- "to be full": 

u-ma, u-ma, u-ma (all 1st pers.) 

U-za-, U-ze-, U-zi- (Ur III), I-zi-, I-ze- 

(Ur III, see discussion on verbs primae ^) j 
wu-zu-is; u-su-ze, u-su-zi (copy), u-su-zi- 
am-ma (copy), li-su-ze-as-su-ni, u-se^-zi, 
li-fse^l-zi-u-nim-ma (PI.) 

I-ba-um, I-ba-tum 


li-im-la-ma; u-sa-am-la-su, -ma, (in) sum-lu-i-su 

MR^ "to fatten* 1 : 

MS> ? "to reach": 
• 1 

N3* "to name": 
NS^ "to bear": 

TM\ "to swear": 



ma-ra-is (inf.) 

Me-ze-i-lum (Impv.), Ma?-zi-am-Esi -dar, Ma-ze- 

da-ri (Ur III) 

* * / 

I-bi-, Na-bi-j Na-hi-um 

as -si (CM), -li-is-si (Ur III, doubtful), li- 

se-.^-u-ni-kum-ma (PI.) 
at-ma (Ur III), it-ma, it-ma [it]-*na^u (PI.), 

it-ma-u (PI.) 3 u-dam-me-ki, tu-mu-at 

(Pass. Part,) 
These verbs behave like verbs with strong conson- 

ants. \ exercises no influence upon the surrounding vowels. 

xii. Verbs Tertiae D . 


3 D D * "to know": 
LQ' "to take": 

PT' "to open": 

SMV"to hear": 

ti-da, I-da-j mu-da (Part.) 

il-gi-ma, il-gi-am-ma, ll-ga (Met. 86.11.13U, 

from Sollberger) 
ip-te-u (Subj.), ip-tenma (copy), Ip-ti-, 
ip-ti-a-am (CM), Ip-ti -urn, Ip-te-u-um, 
li-ip-te-^a-ma (PI.), ba-ti-tum 
asHtta-ma, Is-ma-, Is-ma-, Es-me- (Ur III), 
Is -me-, li-is-me^ Sinme-^a-ni (Ur III), 
Discussion : Observe the manifold influences of \? upon the 
second vowel, resulting in isma% ilga fc , on the one hand, and isme , 
ilgi , ipte , ipti , on the other. As proposed above p. 165, in con- 
nection with the discussion of the value U - ju, the spelling li-ip- 
te-u-ma , occurring in the same text side by side with li-fse- ,^. 1- zi- 
u-nim-ma /lis eg i 3 unimma/ , may express liptejuma , showing \ : \ 
alternation, as noted in the discussion on verbs secundae \j£ 9 - 

xiii. Verbs Tertiae \ 

5 6 R °6 " t0 bring " : 

u-ru, u-ru-am, u-ru-a-am-ma (copy), u-ru-us 
(copy), li-ru-nim, li-ru-u-nim (PI.?), 
nu-ru-am; mu-dar-ri (copy) $ li-si-rx-am, 
li-se.^-ri-am, li-su-ri-am 


"to have": 

gpV "to rejoice": 
UP 3 , "to break": 

Nf D 6 "to be suited"! 
SP^ "to be silent"! 
TR D , "to take away"! 


TP /?: 

ti-su, i-su, I-su- (Ur III), ni-su, -ni-^su 

(Ur III) 
&a-ti-, ga-ti^um; aj^-da-tu? 
i-&a?-pu? (Ur III) 

na-tu (Pass. Part.) 

it-ru, it-ru-u (PI.), [ 1] i-it-ru-u-nim (Pl«?) 
li-i-fc-bu; u-da-bx-su (copy) 

Discussion: The final vowel is regularly u, as in u-ru , it-ru , etc. 

xiv. Verbs Tertiae \ 

V 6 V "to speak": 
D i L D 7 "to come up": 

3 6 P 3 7 "to shine": 

6^ r * 

BN D "to build": 
BR» 7 "to see": 
DK - "to conscribe": 
KM' "to bind": 

L D 3 ^ D ? ?"to be 

strong" : 

MN° 7 "to love": 

N'' "to turn": 

NQ D 7 "to libate": 
Q D 6 D 7 " to wait": 
R D 3 D 7 "to pasture": 
B3 3 "to be great": 


li-li-am, a-lx-dam, e-li-[tum]? (Ur III), 

HTiu-bi; Su-pi-um 
ug^-gij^ (CM) 

ab-ni (copy), ib-ni, -ba-ni$ -na-ab-ni (Ur III) 

id-gi-e-suj-nu-ma (copy) 
ak-mi-[u] (Subj., copy), ik-mi, i-ik-mi, iknrae, 

ik-mi-u (Subj.), i-ik-m-u-suj? (Subj., copy), 

(in) ga-mi-e, Ga-mi-um, Ga-mi-a-tum 
fl-e-, 1-li- (Ur III), La-i-um (Ur III), 

(l-sar-)la-e/£ (Ur III), (i-sar-)li-i (Ur III); 

1 1-te-um 
Im-ni(- d IM) (Ur III), Ma-nl(-DINGIR) (Ur III), Ma- 

ni-um (Ur III), ma-ni-tim (CM) 
i-ni- (copy), e-ni (copy), na-e (Part.). Cf. 

note on N D o D 7 under verbs secundae \ ? 
u-ga-e (copy) 

ir-e-, I-rx-, -rx-x-su, Ri-ril-tum 
-ra-bx, -ra-bx-um (Ur III), -ra-bx -at, ra-bx- 

u-tum (copy); mu-sa-ar-bi-x (copy) 


u-ra-ad-di/ti (CM) 
Ra-y.-um (Part.) 

Ar-Si-, -ar-si (Ur III), Ra-si (Ur in), 
Ra-si (Ur III); ni-ir-da-si-x (Ur III) 
Is (!AM+KUR)-e-, I-is-e- 
Isnxi-, is-nx-anna (Du., copy) 
Is-ri-, Sa-rx-, Sa-ri- 
da-as-zi (Fern.) 

Discussion : The final vowel is normally i, as in ab-ni , ik-mi , 
sometimes e, as in ik-me , Is -e- . 

RD° ? "to follow" 
Rg^ "to pour": 
RS* "to get": 

S 3 , D , "to search": 
SN' "to repeat": 

§S>- "to call": 

xv. Verbs Tertiae D 

M D . 
X X 

VP ? "to find": 

3R D : 

BS* "to be": 

GR' "to be hostile"! 

MP "to throw**: 

QB^ "to speak": 

SL 3 x "to pray"; 


TB° "to come up"! 

I-mi-, I-me-, I-me- 

tf-da-, tf-ta- (Ur III), fl-da- (Ur III), Tu-da- 
( doubtful) 

* \ 

ba-rx-^um; u-ba-rx, pu-ru-xm 

i-ba-se, i-ba-se-..,, i-ba-se-u (Subj.), i-ba-as- 

su-u (CM), ib-si (Ur III?), Ba-si^um, Ba-si- 

um; [su]?^ub-si 
Ga-rx, Ga-rx-um, Ga-ri(-DINGIR) 
a-ga-bi, e-ga-bi, i-ga-pi-u (Subj., copy), 

I-ga-binS (Subj., copy), aq-bx-si-im, daq- 

bx, Iq-bx-, ki-bx-ma, ga-bi (Pass. Part., 

Ur III), Ga-bi-um 
-u-zx-li (Ur III). Unique form, developed from 

as-bi-x-ma, Is-bi- (Ur III), (^TU^sa-bx (Ur III) 
It-be-^ It-be-um * 




Original Inscriptions 

1. Susa # Stela. Akk. Essad Nassouhi, RA XXI 65-7U * Scheil, 

MDP X 4-8 

Late Copies 

1 A a. Nippur. Clay tablet. Sum. Poebel, PBS V 34 i and iii + 
Legrain, PBS XV la iii + PBS V 3u iii 
b. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3U ii and iv + PBS XV kl 
iv + PBS V 3U iv 
B a. Nippur. Clay tablet. Sua. PBS XV 41 v + PBS V 34 v 
b. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS XV 41 vi + PBS V 34 vi 
c.Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. [PES V 3^ xiii +] PBS XV 41 xiv 

C. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3k vi end + PBS XV 41 vii + 

PBS V 34 vii 

D. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3k vii + PBS XV 41 viii + 

PBS V 31* viii + PBS XV 41 ix + PBS V 3k ix 

E. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3k ix end + PBS XV 4l x + 

PBS V 3k x 

F. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 34 x end + PBS XV 4l xi + 

PBS V 3k xi + PBS XV la xii + PBS V 3U xii 

G. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3k xii end + PBS XV i|l xiii + 

PBS V 3U xiii + PBS XV Ul xiv? 
H. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3U xv + PBS XV 4l xv 
I. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3k xvi + PBS XV 1*1 xvi 

2. Clay tablet. Akk. Clay, BRM IV 4 


1. Aslultum or Taslultum (see p. 211 No. 192), wife of Sargon. 

Fragment of an alabaster object. Sum. Clay, YOS I 7 

2. Enfceduanna, daughter of Sargon. Ur. Calcite disk. Sum. Gadd- 

Legrain, UET I 23 

3. Enjieduanna, daughter of Sargon. Ur. Seal. Sum. Gadd-Legrain, 

UET I 271 = Woolley, UE II PI. 212 U. 8988 
4# En&eduanna, daughter of Sargon^ Ur. Seal. Sum. Woolley, UE II 

Fls. 212 and 191 U. 11684 = Legrain, UE III PI. 31 No. 537 
5. Adda, UGULA E of Enfeeduanna. Ur. Seal. Sum. Gadd-Legrain, UET 

I 272 = Woolley, UE II PI. 212 U. 9178 = Woolley, AJ VIII 

PI. XI 6 


1. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TKH V 15 1 

2 a. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 85 

b. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 181 

Late Legends 

1. Birth-legend. Akk. King, Chronicles II 87-96 = King, CT 

XIII if2f . 
2 a. Sar tampri, Akk. Schroeder, VAS XII 193; Schroeder, KAV 

138. Cf. Weidner, Boghazkoi-Studien VI. 
b. Hitt. Forrer, 2 BoTU 1 and 2 = Figulla, KBo III 9 and 10 

3. Babylonian world-map. Akk. Peiser, ZA IV 369f. = Campbell 

Thompson, CT XXII 48. Cf. Weidner, op. cit. pp. 8?ff. 

4. Sargon 1 s Empire map. Akk. Schroeder, KAV 92 = Weidner, AOF 

XVI 1-23 

5. Akk. Nougayrol, PA XLV 169-183, parallel to van Dijk, Sumer 

XIII 66, 99ff. 

6. Akk. Falkenstein, Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Uruk No. 

46. Borger, AOF XVIII ll6f . : Sargon II of Assyria 

7. Sum. Scheil, RA XIII 176 = De Genouillac, TCL XVI 73 (cf. 

Guterbock, ZA XLII 37f.) 

8. Sum. De Genouillac, Kich II p. 37 C. 55: lugal Sar-ru-ki-in 

Late Chronicles 

1. Akk. Boissier, Babyloniaca IX 23ff.$ Falkenstein, LKU iil$ 

Guterbock, ZA XLII Itfff . Cf . also corrections by 
Weidner, AOF XIII 50f . 

2. Akk. King, Chronicles II 3-9 

Late Omens 

1. Akk* King, Chronicles II 25-37, UO-UU 

2* Akk. Weidner, MAOG IV 230-231 

3. Akk. Rutten, RA XXX? 31 
h. Akk. Goetze, JCS I 253ff. 

5* Akk. Nougayrol, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Annuaire 

191*W£ pp. 6ff. Nos. 3, 12, 20, 38, 5U, 55, 57, 59, 61, 

62, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 7U, 75, 77a, 77b, 83, 
92, 106 


Original Inscriptions 

1 a. Nippur, Vase. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 5 (several fragments) 

b. Fragment of a vessel? Akk. King, CT VII h No. 12162 

c. Khafaje. Vase. Akk. Frankfort, OIC XVI 7Ua - Jacob-sen apud 

Delougaz, OIP LIII lU7 No. 8 

d. Tell Brak. Vase. Akk. Mallowan, Iraq IX PI. L k and pp. 27, 

66, 197 

e. Nippur. Vase. Akk. 2 NT hhS 

2 a. Ur. Mace-head. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 10 

b. Ur. Vase. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 22 

c. Ur. Vase. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 273 

3 a. Nippur. Vase. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 7 

b. Nippur. Vase. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 8 

c. Nippur. Vase. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 9 

d. Abu Habba (see King, H3A p. 20U) . Fragment of a vessel? Akk. 

King, CT VII h No. 12161 

e. Telle Bowl. Akk. De Sarzec, DC II PI. LVI * PI. 5 Fig. k 

f. Tello. Fragment of onyx. Akk. De Sarzec, DC II PI. LVI 


g. Tello. Vase. Akk. De Sarzec, DC II PI. 1*1* 2 

h. Ur. Vase. Akk. Gadd-Le grain, UET I 8 - Woolley, AJ III PI. 

XXXII Fig. la 

i. Ur. Mace-head. Akk. Woolley, AJ III PI. XXXII Fig. 1c 

j. Vase. Akk. Messerschmidt, VAS I 10 

k. Vase. Akk. Stephens, YOS IX 97 

1. Vase. Akk. Stephens, YOS IX 98 

m. Vase. Akk. Shileiko, Sum. Votive Inscriptions pp. 9f . 

n. Khafaje. Vase. Akk. Frankfort, OIC XVI 7l*b ■ Jacobsen apud 

Delougaz, OIP LIII H*7 No. 10 

o. Uruk. Vase. Akk. AFAW 1935, Phil. -hist. Kl. No. h PI. 25c 

p. Assur. Mace-head. Akk. Preusser, WVBOG LXIV p. 6 and PI. 22b 

km. Nippur. Vase. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 6 

5. Nippur. Vase. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 10 

6. „ Ur. Bowl. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 9. Cf. Late Copies 1 H 

7. Nippur. Slab. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 13 ([Ri-m]u?-us) 

Late Copies 

1 A. Nippur* Clay tablet. Akk. Legrain, PBS XV Ul xvi + Poebel, 

PBS V 3h xvii + PBS XV 1*1 xvii + PBS V 3l* xviii + PBS 

XV la xviii + PBS V 31* xix 

B. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 31* xix + PBS XV 1*1 xix 

C. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 31* xx 

D. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 31* xx + PBS XV 1*1 xx + PBS 

V 3U xxi 

B. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 31* xxi + PBS XV 1*1 xxi + 
PBS V 31* xxii 

F. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3U xxii 

G. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS XV 1*1 xxii + PBS V 31* xxiii + 

PBS XV Ul xxiii + PBS V 3U xxiv + PBS XV 1*1 xxiv +? PBS 

V 3U xxv 

H. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3k xxv. Cf . Original Inscrip- 
tions 6 
I a. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3k xxv + PBS XV 1*1 xxv + 
PBS V 3U xxvi 

b. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 36 Rev. v 

c. Clay tablet. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RA VIII 136 

J a. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. PBS V 3l+ xxvii first half 

b. Clay tablet. Akk, Thureau-Dangin, RA VIII 139 Obv. ii 

and Rev. ii 

c. Nippur. Clay tablet. Sum, PBS V 31+ xxviii first half 

d. Clay tablet. Sum, Thureau-Dangin, RA VIII 139 Obv. i 

and Rev. i 

Late Omens 

1. Akk. Weidner, MAOG IV 231-232 

2. Akk. Rutten, RA XXXV 1+1 

3. Akk, Goetze, JCS I 256 

k* Akk. Nougayrol, l£cole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Annuaire 
19i+l+4;5 pp. llf. Nos. 29, 1*2, 58, 87 


Original Inscriptions 

■ 1 a. Susa. Statue. Akk/ Scheil, RA VII 101+ « Scheil, MDP XIV pp. 
1-3 * Late Copies 1 

b. Abu Habba. Stela. Akk. King, CT XXXII 5b No. 56630 - Jensen, 

ZA XV 21+8 n. 1 

c. Abu Habba. Stela. Akk. King, CT XXXII 5c No, 56631 second 

half « Jensen, ZA XV 21+8 n. 1 

d. Nippur. Stone fragment? Akk. Poebel, PBS V 35 

e. Susa. Stone fragment. Akk. Scheil, MDP IV p. 2 

2. Nippur. Vase. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 118 » Late Copies 2 

3, Mace-head. Akk. King, CT XXI 1 No. 91018 - Winckler, Mitt. 

d. Akad. Orient. Ver. zu Berlin I 18 
li. Abu Habba. Stela. Akk, King, CT XXXII 5c first half No. 

Late Copies 

1 a. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. Poebel, PBS V 3l+ xxvi, xxvii 

second half and xxviii second half » Original Inscrip- 
tions 1 
b. Ur. Clay tablet. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 271+ iv second 
half, iv-vi 


2. Nippur, Clay tablet. Akk. Poebel, PBS V 3U xxvii * Original 

Inscriptions- 2 

3. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk, Poebel, PBS V 3U xxviii second half 
h a. Abu Habba. Cruciform Monument. Akk. King, CT XXXII 1-U 

b. Clay tablet. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RA VII 180 * Scheil, MDP 
II p. k n. 1 

Officials, etc. 

1. Abazu. Assur. Speer. Akk. Andrae, MDOG No. 73 pp. If. 

2 a. Esbum. Susa. Statue. Akk. Scheil, MDP X 1-3 =* Scheil, RA 

vii ioU 

b. Bsbum. Susa. Seal impression. Legrain, MDP XIV p. h m 

Delaporte, CCL I S 1*1*3 ' 

c. Esbum. Susa. Seal impression. Legrain, MDP XIV p. 1* ** 

Delaporte, CCL I S 1*71 
3. Taribu. Seal. Sum. Speleers, CIMC p. 116 No. $9h 

Late Omens 

1. Akk. Rutten, RA XXXV Ul 

2. Akk. Goetze, JCS I 257 


Original Inscriptions 

1 a. Nippur. Brick stamp. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 1* 

b. Tello. Brick stamp. Akk. King, PSBA X3QCI 286ff. 
2. Adab. Brick stamp. Akk. Luckenbill, OIP XIV 27 

3 a. Dr. Bowl. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 2iiA 

b. Fragment of vase. Akk. King, CT XXXII 8c No. 10Uil8 

c. Tello. Vase. Akk. De Sarzec, DC II PI. LVII - PI. 1*1* Fig. 1 

d. Drehem. Vase. Akk. Nassouhi, RA XXII 91 

e. Vase. Akk. Stephens, YOS IX 96 

1* a. Tello. Vase. Akk. De Genouillac, RA X 101 No. 1 * Speleers, 

b. Tello. Square plate. Akk. De Sarzec, DC II PI. LVII » PI. 

26 bis Fig. 1 - CRAI 1899 p. 31*8 and PI. I 

c. Ur. Vase. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 277. Uncertain 

d. Nippur. Clay tablet, Akk. Poebel, PBS V 37 

5 a* Bought in Babylon. Vase. Akk. I R 3 vii 

b. Susa. Vase. Akk. Scheil, MDP IV p. 1 

c. Vase. Akk. Stephens, YOS IX 95 

6 a. Marad. Door socket. Akk. Clay, YOS I 10 and PI. L 

b. .Marad. Door socket. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RA XI 88 

c. Door socket. Akk. Eames Collection. Unpubl. 

7. Pir Huseyin (Diyarbekir). Stela. Akk. Unger, IAMN XII PI. 

I - Hilprecht, BE I 120 and PI. XXII - Scheil, RT XV 62f . 

8. Nineveh. Stone fragment. Akk. "linger, IAMN XII PI. IV 6 - 

Lehmann-Haupt, Materialien p. 6f. + Unger, IAMN XII PI. 
IV 7 - Thompson, Archaeologia LXXIX PI. XLIII No. ii7 
(cf • Opitz apud Weidner, AOF VII 280) 

9. Susa. Stela. Akk. Scheil, MDP II 53-55 and PI. 11 * Scheil, 


10. Susa. Statue. Akk. Scheil, MDP VI 2-5 and PI. 1 No. 1" 

11. Susa* Clay tablet. Elam. Scheil, MDP XI 1-11 

12. Tell Brak. Brick. Akk. Mallowan, Iraq IX 66 and PI. LXIV 

Late Copies 

1. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. Poebel, PBS V 36 Obv. ii-iii-iv-v 

and Rev. i-ii-iii-iv 
2 a. Ur. Clay tablet. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 27ii i-ii-iii-iv 

first half 
b. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. Unger, IAMN XII PI. V No. 10 
3. Ur. Clay tablet. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 275 
in Ur. Clay tablet. Akk. Gadd-Legrain, UET I 276 

5. Clay tablet. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RA VIII 200 

6. Clay tablet. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RA IX 3U 


1. Bin-kali -sarrl, son of Naram-Sin. Seal. Akk.? Menant, 

Glyptique I PI. I 1 

2. Bin-kali -sarri, son of Naram-Sin. Tello. Seal impression. 

Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 169 = De Sarzec, DC I p. 288 » 
Delaporte, CCL I T 36 

3. Enmenanna, daughter of Naram-Sin. Tello. Seal impression. 

Sum. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 109h = Scheil, RT XIX 187 
In Enmenanna, daughter of Naram-Sin. Ur. Door socket. Gadd- 

Legrain, UKT I 69 

5. Enmenanna, daughter of Naram-Sin. Ur. Seal. Sum. Woolley, 

UE II Pis. 206 and 191 U. 98Uli 

6. Enmenanna, daughter of Naram-SinJ Disk-like stone object. 

Sum. Sollberger, AOF XVII 27 (cf. also S. Smith, BMQ 
VI 81) 

7. Lipus^iaum, daughter of Nabl-tflmas, son of Naram-Sin. Tello. 

Square plate. Akk. D'e Sarzec, DC II PI. LVII - PI. 
26 bls Fig. 2 = CRAI 1899 p. 3U8 and PI. I 

8. ME-Ulmas, daughter of Naram-Sin. Mari. Bowl. Akk. Parrot, 

Syria XXXII PI. XVI No. 1. The two other bowls on PI. 
XVI are unreadable 

9. Ukin-Ulmas, son of Naram-Sin. Seal. Akk. Weber, AO XVIl/ 

XVIII No. 229; also frontispiece to Unger, Keilschrift 

Officials, etc. 

1. Lugal-usumgal. Tello. Seal impression. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, 

RTC 165, 166 = Heuzey, RA IV 11 = De Sarzec, DC I p. 
286, Lugal-usumgal lived also under Sar-kali-sarrI; cf . 
Sar-kali-sarrI Officials 6. It is unknown whether the 
seal impression in Thureau-Dangin, RTC 179, belongs 
under Naram-£in or Sar-kali-sarrI 

2. Nasa?. Tello. Seal. impression. Akk.? Thureau-Dangin, RTC 171 

Cros, NFT 173 = De Sarzec, DC I p. 287 - Delaporte, CCL 
I T 103 - Delaporte, CCBN No. 80 

3. Sarris-takal. Tello. Seal impression. Akk.? Thureau-Dangin, 

RTC 170 = Delaporte, CCL I T 57 * Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 
PI. VII No. 23 
lw Sarris-takal. Susa. Statue. Akk. Scheil, MDP VI 6 

5. Su-i[lisu?]. Tello. Seal impression. Akk.? Thureau-Dangin, 

RTC 168 - Delaporte, CCL I T UU - Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 
PI. VII No. 2k 

6. Ur-Enlil?.Adab. Gold tablet. Akk. Banks, Bismya p. 1U5 

7. Urunaugga. Nippur. Disk. Sum. Legrain, PBS XV 81 


8, Urunaugga. Nippur. Vase, Sum. Hilprecht, BE I 113 

9. Unknown. Tello. Seal impression. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 

167 * Delaporte, CCL I T 101 

10. Unknown. Tello. Seal impression. Akk.? Thureau-Dangin, RTC 

172 = Delaporte, CCL I T 35 * Thureau-Dangin, RA IV PI, 
VII No. 22 

11. Unknown, Tello. Seal impression. Akk.? Thureau-Dangin, RTC 

17U * Delaporte, CCL I T 10ij.« De Sarzec, DC I p. 281* -. 
Heuzey, RA IV 9 


1 a. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 86 - Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 
PI. VI No. 19 

b. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 106 

c. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC ikk = Heuzey, RA IV 21f. 

2. Nippur. Sum. Barton, PBS IX 15 

3. Nippur. Sum. Barton, PBS IX 25 
in Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 37 

5. Nippur. Sum. Unger, IAMN XII PI. V 9 

6. Adab. Akk. Istanbul Museum A dab i;0U 

7 a. Khafaje. Akk. Gelb, MAD I 217 
b. Khafaje. Akk. Gelb, MAD I 220 

8 a. Khafaje. Akk. Gelb, MAD I 231 
b. Khafaje. Akk. Gelb, MAD I 236 

Late Legends 

1. Sum. De Genouillac, TCL XVI 6U, 66; Legrain, PBS. XIII 15, 

13, hi; Chiera, Sumerian Religious Texts 2 (cf. Guter- 
bock, ZA XLII 25-35) I Chiera, OIP XVI 9it, 100, 101. 
Altogether more than 20 published and unpublished frag- 
ments of a composition named "Curse of Agade: The Ekur 
Avenged" by Kramer and discussed by him in From the 
Tablets of Sumer pp. 267-271 and by Bernhardt and Kramer 
in Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Friedrich-Schiller- 
Universitat Jena V 759-761 

2. Sum. Langdon, BE XXXI 1 (it may belong to No. 1) 


3 a. Legend of Cutha. Akk. King, CT XIII 39-40, 41, 44; Campbell 
Thompson, Epic of Gilgamish PI. 34; a large text from 
Sultantepe, now published in Gurney and Finkelstein, The 
Sultantepe Tablets I 30. Cf. the discussion of the com- 
posite text by Gurney in Anatolian Studies V (1955) 93- 
113 . An additional OB fragment was published in Scheil, 
PT XX 65f- = Finkelstein, JCS XI 84f . 
b. Hitt. Forrer, 2 BoTU k « Figulla, KBo III 16; KBo III 17, 
18, 19; KBo III 20-2 BoTU $ (cf. Guterbock, Zk XLIV 

h a. Akk. Boissier, RA XVI 161 and 163 

b. Akk. of the Sargonic Period, Gelb, MAD I 172 

c. Hitt. Forrer, 2 BoTU 3 • Figulla, KBo III 13 
£. Akk. Weidner, AOF XIII Pis. J-II opp. p. U8 

Late Chronicles 

1. Akk. Boissier, Babyloniaca IX 23ff«> Falkenstein, LKU 1*1 J 

Guterbock, ZA XLII U7ff . Cf . also corrections by 
Weidner, AOF XIII #)f . 

2. Akk. King, Chronicles II 9-10 

Late Omens 

1. Akk. King, Chronicles II 37-39, hk-hS 

2. Akk. Weidner, MAOG IV 232-233 

3. Akk. Rutten, RA XXXV 1;2 
It. Akk. Goetae, JCS I 2$7f. 

5a, Akk. Nougayrol, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Annuaire 
19hh^S PP. 6ff. Nos. 2, U, 5, 8, 9, 10, 76a, 76b, 78, 
90, 96 
b. Akk. Clay, BRM IV 13:18 


Original Inscriptions 

1. Nippur. Door socket. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 1 = Scheil, RT 
XV 61* 

2 a. Nippur. Door socket. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 2 = Scheil, RT 
XV 87 

b. Nippur. Sheet of gold. Akk. Jacobsen, CTC 80 

c. Nippur. Clay tablet. Akk. Le grain, PBS XIII lit 
3. Nippur. Brick stamp. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 3 

It, Mace-head. Akk. King, CT XXI la - Pinches, PSBA VI (1883- 
.810 llf. » Rylands, op. cit. p. 68 

5. Clay tablet (impression of an old inscription on a door 

socket). Akk. Clay, MJ III 23 

6. Brick stamp. Akk. Stephens, IOS IX 7 


1, Tu-da-sar-li-bi-is, wife of Sar-kali-sarrL Tello. Seal 

impression. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, ETC 161 - Heuzey, RA IV 
5 - De Sarzec, DC II PI. 32 bis 6 

2. Tu-da-sar-li-bi-is, wife of Sar-kali-sarri. Adab. Seal 

impression. Sum.? Ward, SCWA. Fig. 1*8 

Officials » etc. 

1. Ibnx-sarrum. Seal. Akk. Coll. De Clercq I 1*6 

2. Isar-d£nl. Bronze bowl. Akk. Pope, A Survey of Persian Art I 

281 =* Pope, Bulletin of the American Institute for 
Persian Art and Archaeology VII 20 

3. Kirbanum. Adab. Seal impression. Ward, SCWA Fig. U7 

km Idpit-ilx? # Tello. Seal impression. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 
163 - Heuzey, RA IV 3 s De Sarzec, DC I p. 281 

5. Lugal-gis. Adab. Seal impression. Sum. Istanbul Museum Adab 

767; 768; 77U 

6. Lugal^usumgal. Tello. Seal impression. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, 

RTC 162 = Heuzey, RA IV 8 » De Sarzec, DC I p. 283. Cf . 
also Naram-Sin, Officials 1 

7. Lu-Sara. Cup. Sum. Stephens, YOS IX 8 

8. Sa-ki-be-li. Found at Payravand in Persia. Bronze bowl. Sum. 

Legrain, Luristan Bronzes in the University Museum No. 
61 - Weidner, AOF VIII 258 Abb. 6a 

9. Unknown. Tello. Seal impression. Akk.? Thureau-Dangin, RTC 

161; - Thureau-Dangin, RA IV PI. VII No. 21 =* Delaporte, 
CCL I T 39 

10.. Unknown. Khafaje. Mace-head. A 7162 unpubl. , but cf. 
Feigin, JAOS LH 107 


1 a. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 85 - Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 

PI. VI No. 17. Cf ♦ Unknown Kings Dates 1 

b. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 121* 

c. Tell Agrab. Akk. Gelb, MAD I 268 

2 a. Tello, Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 87 - Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 

PI. V No. lit 
b. Tell Asmar. Sum. Gelb, MAD I 305? 

3 a. Tello. Akk, Thureau-Dangin, RTC 118 * Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 

PI. V No. 13 
b. Adab. Akk. Istanbul Museum Adab 1|05 
k a. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 130 = Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 
PI. VI No. 16 

b. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 1097 

c. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 1115 

d. Tello. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 1089? 

5. Tello. Sum.? De Genouillac, ITT II 3078 

6. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I lllU 

7. Nippur. Sum. Poebel, PBS V 38 

8 a. Adab. Akk. Luckerib±31, OIP XIV 117 
b. Adab. Akk. Istanbul Museum Adab 177 

Late Omens 

1. Akk. Weidner, MAOG IV 233-23U 

2. Akk. Goetze, JCS I 258f. 

3. Akk. Nougayrol, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Annuaire 

19kk-h$ p. 9 No. 21 


Original Inscriptions 

1. Diyala District? Dagger. Akk.? Selim J. Levy, AOF X 
(1935-36) 281 


Original Inscriptions 

1 a. Nippur. Vase. Akk. Poebel, PBS V 39 
b. Vase. Akk. Thureau-Dangin, Chronologie p. 63 

Officials, etc. 

1. Amar-INNIN.ZA. Seal impression, Akk. Istanbul Miseura Adab 769 


Original Inscriptions 

1. Kish. Seal impression. Akk. De Genouillac, Kich II PI. $h 
No. 9 

Officials, etc. 

1. La-ba&sum. Hammer-head. Akk. Pognon, JA 1913 p» itf-8 * 

Thureau-Dangin, Chronologie p. 63 ■ Gadd, EDSA PI. 3 
BM 111*703 

2. Unknown. Tell Asmar. Seal impression. Akk. Frankfort, OIP 

LXXII No. 701 and pp. k9 and opp. PI. 65 


Original Inscriptions 

1. Nippur. Vase fragment. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 12 

2. Nippur. Vase fragment. Akk. Hilprecht, BE I 119 

3. Seal. Sum.? King, CT XXI 1. = Wenant, Glyptique PI. Ill 1 
1;. Nippur. Vase fragment. Akk. Legrain, PBS XV 18 

5. Tello. Stela of Victory. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, RS 1897 pp» 

I66ff. - Heuzey, RA III 113ff. and PI. VI -De Sarzec, 
DC II p. LVII - PI. 5 bxS 3a, b, c 

6. Tello. Seal impression. Sum.? Thureau-Dangin, BTC 173 ~ 

Delaporte, CCL I T 6U - Thureau-Dangin, RA IV PI. VIII 
No. 26 

7. Ur. Mace-head. Akk. Gadd-Legrain/ UET I 6 

.8. Stone fragment. Akk. Bohl, Mededeelingen . .. 76B No. 9 p. 

12 (probably Naram-Sin) 
9. Statue. Akk/ Stephens, YOS IX 9 

10. Stela. Akk. King, CT XXXII 5 No. 98917 

11. Stela. Akk. King, CT XXXII 5 No. 98918 

12. Khafaje. Vase. Delougaz, OIP LIII p. 1U7 No. 11 

13. Alabaster fragment. Akk. Weidner, AOF XV 95 n. 65 

Late Copies 

1. Nippur. Clay tablet. !, Ein grosses Duplikat zu der beruhmten 

Akkadtafel" (■ PBS V 3k + PBS XV hi) in Istanbul Museum, 
listed by Kraus, JCS I 115 

2. Nippur. Clay tablet. "Une tablette ancien-babylonienne 

contient un texte historique concernant le roi Sargon 
d ! Akkad (Ni. 2727)" in Istanbul Museum, listed in IAM 
XI p. 61 

3. Nippur. Clay tablet, "Une tablette d^xercise ancien- 

babylonienne, mentionnant la victoire remportee sur le 
peuple de l ! Elam (Ni, 2105)" in Istanbul Museum, listed 
in IAMN XI p. 61 


Note: several of the dates listed below may be slightly older than the 

Sargonic 'Period 
1 a. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 88 « Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 
PI. V No. 15* Cf. Sar-kali-sarri Dates 1 

b. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 10U8 

c. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 1052 

d. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 1053 

2, Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 89 » Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 

PI. VI No. 18 

3 a. Tello. Sum, Thureau-Dangin, RTC 99 

b. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 136 

c. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, RTC 176 » Thureau-Dangin, RA IV 

PI. VII No. 20 

d. Tello. Sum. Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 1196 

lw Tello. Sum, Thureau-Dangin, ITT I 101*2 

5. Tello. Akk. De Genouillac, ITT V 9265 

6. Gasur. Akk. Keek, HSS X UO? 
7 a. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 80 

b. Nippur. Sum. Legrain, PBS XIII 27 

8. Niirour. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 86 

9. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 8? 

10. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 100 

11. Nippur. Sum. Fohl, TMH V 110 

12. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 138 

13. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 130 
IJf. Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 1?0 
15* Nippur. Sum. Pohl, TMH V 184 

Late Legends 

1. Sum.? n Une table tte- ancien-babylonienne donne une hymne au 

roi ? dieu Naram-Sin 1 (Ni. 2728)" in Istanbul Museum, 
listed in IAMN XI p. 61 

2. Hitt. Fragment Bo. 213U mentions Naram-Sin (cf. Guterbock, 

Zk XLIV 80f.) 

3. Hitt. Fragment Bo. 1*178 mentions Sargon (cf. Guterbock, ZA 

XLIV 81) 
In Hurr. Fragment published in von Brandenstein, KUB XXVII 38, 

mentions Naram-Sin, Man-istusu, Sargon, and Sar-kali- 

sarrl (cf . Forrer, 2 BoTU p. 2£f ,, and Guterbock, Zk 

XLIV 8lff.) 
5. Hitt. Fragment published in Eheholf , KUB XVII % and fragment 

Bo. 2865 mention Akkad (cf. Guterbock, ZA XLIV 8U-90) 


P. 3* - To the list of Pre-Sargonic votive inscriptions add: 
g. YOS IX 2, ending with a questionable rSAG.gUB.DUl; and h. 6 
NT 100, from Nippur, soon to be published. 

P. 6. - The spelling of the name of the last king of Akkad is 
given here as Su-Turul, with t, not Su-Durul, because the second 
part of the royal name represents clearly the name of the deified 
river (cf. Su- Pur-ul in A 7631, OB unpubl.) to be identified 
with the later forms Turan, Turnat, etc., all with £ (= modern 

P. 11. - The late Sargonic date for a group of texts with the 
characteristic date formula of the type x MU x IT I x UD, proposed 
above p. 11, seems confirmed by the occurrence of a PN ^fla-ra-am - 
HEN.ZCU-x-li?] on an unpublished tablet bearing the date 2 MU 5 ITI 
9 UD in possession of Dr. Serota of Chicago. The name in question 
cannot be simply Naram-Sin since the tablet deals with administra- 
tive matters concerning private individuals. The name is composed 
of a royal name, here deified, plus an unknown predicate. 

P. 16. - Some of these inscriptions are now republished in 
Parrot, Mission archeologique de Mari II/3 (1959)* 

P. 21. - The possibility of considering two varieties of 
cuneiform writing, the northern variety (possibly centered around 
Kis) and the southern variety (possibly centered around Nippur), was 
discussed by Gelb at the meeting of the IX Rencontre Assyriologique 
Internationale in Geneva (cf. Genava n. s. VIII C196O] 266). 

P. 3k • - Also Falkenstein, Das Sumerische (Leiden, 1959) p. 
25, proposes now "dass am Ende der ns. (= neusumerischen) Zeit 
ein 1 eingetreten ist, M in contrast to his former posi- 
tion as expressed, e. g. , apud Sollberger, Le systeme verbal .... 
(Geneve, 1952) p. 16 n. 5. 


P. 37. - This suggestion is weakened by the possibility 
that the sign TA in Ta-la-bu and I-ta-wi-ir may represent an in- 
distinctly copied SA, a sign which is quite similar to TA in the 
Ur III Period. 

P. 40. - The Old Akkadian sibilants have been discussed 
recently by Speiser in JAOS LXXIII (£953) 130ff. f Kienast in 
Orient, n. s. XXVI (1957) 258, Goetze in HA LI I (1958) 137-149, 
and Aro in Orient, a. s. XXVIII (1959) 321-335. I intend to dis- 
cuss their opinions on the sibilants in a separate article. 

p # 44, - Checkmarks in the form of small circles or hooks 
were used on the Old Babylonian tablets from Lagaba; see Lee- 
mans t SLB 1/3. p. 18. 

P. 45. - Of. also A-KI-SIG (BIN VIII 39 iv 40) for A-Jm- 
SIG and A-RI- su-ni (175:46) for A-ku-su-ni (ibid. 1. 36), both 
in PSarg, 

P. 5° No* 15* - In favor of the syllabic value KA = ka Dr. 

v ■ * 

Sollberger suggests in a letter the reading I-lum-ka-li (BIN VIII 
36 iii 1, PSarg.). 

P. 58 No. 41. - For the Elamite deity Tiru cf. Cameron, HEI 
p. 160 n. 11. 

P. 60 No. 54* - The reading Bir^-ba-sum is further confirmed 
by the existence of Bi-ir-faa-su (Orient. XVIII 26:6, Ur III)and 
Bi-ir-&a-su-um (OB, unpubl.). For another example of NAM = bir ^ 

"*' v V KI 

cf. sa-bir ^ (GIS.TUKUL SUBUE ) in an unpubl. Sarg. royal inscrip- 
tion at Philadelphia (Nippur 29. 16.103, from Civil). 

P. 61 No. 55. - The syllabic value GAL - gal in PSarg. 
occurs in Gal-la-bi (DP 141 iii 3) compared with Gal-la-bi (GLB) 
in Ur III. 

P. 63 No. 75. - For INNIN = nin in the Ur III Period cf. 
Ur- d INNIN-da * Ur- d Nin-da (YOS IV 43:4 and seal). 

P. 65 No. 82. - Further evidence in favor of LAL = ru(m)' 
can be found in A. LAL = A.EDIN, the latter glossed e-ru(m) ; cf. 
Deimel, PB No. 856, Tallqvist, AGE p. 286, and, for the value rug, 
von Soden, AS No. 118. 

P. ?2 No. 113. - Cf. also (LU.)SA.HIR.RA (UET III p. 147, 
Ur III) with SA.HI.KA KUG.GI (De Genouillac, TD 88:2, Ur III). 

P. 72 No. 113* - The syllabic value of EZEN causes diffi- 
culties. On the one hand, we have the DN HKin-EZEN (AnOr XIX No. 
38?) = Nin-I-si-in -na , Nin-In-si-na , etc. (AnOr XIX Nos. 
425-430; Cros, NFT p. 159) and the GN EZEN- d Sul-gi KI (Radau, EBH 
p. 299:1^) = I-sin (SIM) - d SuI-gi K I (MAD III 260) = I-si/si (wr. A)- 
in - Sul-g i (OIP XI 216 iv 4f., read as I-di-in - Sul-gi by Kramer, 
Sumer III 72), suggesting the value isin for EZEN; while on the 
other, we have the PN's EZEN- d SuI-gi (MAD III 315) =? I-zi-in - 

Sul-gi (p. 303) and EZEN.NA = I-zi-na , I-zi-na (p. 69), suggesting 
the value izin , isin for EZEN. 

P. 72 No. 114. - For BAD = ba cf. the Ur III GN GIS.TIR 

* KI , X 

Ne-zi -BAD (Fish^ CST PI. XLVII vi 15, text discussed by Gelb in 

AJSL LV 72) with I P Ne-zi-be in an OB lexical text (OIP XI 214 v 

4) and Me-e Ne-zi-ba in an OB letter (YOS II 133:6). Perhaps also 

the OB GN BAD UH? Gu-la -BAD (King, LIH II 97 ii 53 = VAS I 33 iii 

2) should rather be interpreted as Gu-la-ba /Kullaba/ than 

Gula-duri . 

P. 7k No. 118. - For EDIN = e-rum cf. the discussion on p. 
209 No. 82. 

P. 76 No. 123. - For the Sumerian value ru of BI.EU cf. lu 
gaba -BI.RU (S iv 5) = lu gaba-ru (S v kO) in late copies of in- 
scriptions of Sargon. 

P. 76 No. 125a. - For additional evidence in favor of AZU = 

zu^ in PSarg, cf. d Nin-a-zu ^ (UE I PI. XL U 26), and Me-zu c -an-da 
— 5 5 5 

compared with Me-zu-an-da (both in TMH V p. 19). 

P. 76 No. 126. - For a Sum. value AG = in cf. the name of 

— x 

the PSarg. king spelled Mes-ki -AG- ga-se-ir and Mes-ki-in-ga-se-ir 
(Jacobsen, SKL pp. 84ff.) and the reading of GIN as gi-AG and gi^ 
in (§L 595, 32). 

P. 86 No. 167. - The value ag for SID, based on the assumed 
relation of SID-tab KI with d Ak-dub (dab )- bi-tum (cf. Poebel, JAOS 
LVII 360, 362, and above No. 101), cannot be reconciled with ki- 
ri SID sa SID. TAB. BA found in a recently published lexical text 
(Landsberger, AOF XIII 129f.). 

P. 89 No. 174. - For the Sum. value D a of E cf. also 3%-gar 
= a-gar (M. Lambert in RA XLVII 34); E- ri-a = a-ri-a (Falkenstein, 


N3GU II p. 203); £.SAL = a-me (MSL II No. 226); Lugal-E-si 
(Fara III 33 vii 2) = Lugal-a-si (ETC 14 iv 31); discussion by 
Falkenstein, Grammatik der Sprache Gudeas p. 25 n. 3, Sollberger 
in AOF XVII 11, Laessj^e, Studies on the Assyrian Ritual Bit Rimki 
p. 18, and Krusina-£erny in AOr XXVII 363. 

P. 90 No. 175. - For the syllabic value NIR = rin cf • pos- 
sibly Su-NIR (see above) interpreted as Su-rin by Sollberger 
(in a private communication); for the syllabic value ri_ cf. 

perhaps d 2u-NIR-da, d Su-NIR-da and d SU.SE-NIR-da (Beimel, PB No. 

3120 with (Ur-) Se-ri-da (Jones and Snyder, Sumerian Economic 

Texts from the Third Ur Dynasty No. 243:67 and p. 388), and the 

evidence (not clear) adduced by Frank in ZA XLI 198, based on the 

equation of CT XXIV 9:27 with 9:12. 

P. 90 No. 179. - Falkenstein, NSGU II p. 118, followed by 

Sollberger, BO XVI 114a, applied the value SAG.GUNU = zur to the 

reading of the Ur III PN's ^JTU- ik-zur , Sa-u-ik-zur , LUGAL-ik- 

zur , and NIN- ik-zur , deriving the second element from the root 

KSR. Plausible as the new interpretation appears, we should note 

d * 
that the expected form with fern, subject Ba-u and NIN is taksur , 

not iksur. See p. 159* Of. also the discussion in BIN VIII pp. 

12f . and an additional example, DlNGIR- ik-zur , found in Jones 

and Snyder, Sumerian Economic Texts from the Third Ur Dynasty No. 

330:1 and p. 36l. 

P. 91 No. 180. - For Lfj = lu cf. PN's composed of LUGAL, 
i. e. GAL.LU, such as GAL.LU- bad , GAL.LU-ezen, GAL.LU- gir-gal , 
GAL.LU -ur-sag , etc. (TMH V pp. l8f . ) with PN's composed of LUGAL, 
written GAL.LU, such as GAL.LU-bad, GAL.LU- ezen , GAL.LU- gir-gai , 
GAL.LU- ur-sag , etc. (op. cit. p. 16 under Gal-udu -. . . ♦). 

P. 91 No. 180a. - A syllabic value LU.SESSIG = ug in Sum. 
can be deduced apparently from DN LU . SESSIG- ku-ra (PSarg.) com- 
pared with PN Ur-Ukc-ku-ra (both listed under No. 114). Cf. also 
MSL II No. 633. 

P. 91 No. l8k. - For a Sum. value mu of SAR, from PSarg. on, 
cf - Nin-SAR = Nin-mu (Kramer, BASOR Suppl. Studies 1 p. 25 n. 
47; Sollberger, BO XVI ll8b); Ur- d Nin-SAR-ga (Nikolski, Dok. II 
236 rev. ii 11, Ur III) = Ur - Nin-mug-ga (344 rev. 5). 


P. 93 No. 192. - By comparing AS -lul-tum , f. n. (YOS I 7) 
with Da-as-lul-tum , f. n. (SLL) and AS- ma-tum (FM 28) with Da-as- 
ma- turn , f. n # (SM 3 , ) a likely value tas for AS can be assumed. 
Cf. also AS- ni-tum , f. n. ( 3 SN, PSarg. and Ur III) - Tas n i turn ? 
and AS -dub-ba (TMH V 35 i; 67 i, PSarg.) beside Da-as-dub-ba , 
f. n. (STP). For f. n. 's of the type Taslultum, Tadlultum cf. p. 

P. 95 No. 207. - For LUL = lu cf. also Ip-lu(l)-zi -DINGIR 
(HSS X 188 iii 21) with Ip-lu-zi -DINGIR (TMH V 51:2) and GIS.LU(L). 
fjR.MA with GIS.NU.fe.MA (both under NRM? nurmum). 

P. 98 No. 226. - In favor of SRIN = bir in PSarg. cf. E-ki- 
bir-ra-ka (RTC kl i 2). 

P. 98 No. 226. - In support of the value fEtN = rin cf. the 
FN E-ki-rln-na (BIN VIII 192:6, 11; 201:6; 226:7; 248:7; 
291:8) with E-ki-rin (ERIN)-na (BIN VIII 191:2). Cf. also p. 213 
No. 280 and No. 295a. 

P. 99 No. 229. - For an additional example of gl = |ie cf. 
Hl- du-tum with He-du-ut - (HD'g, Ur III). 

P. 99 No. 229. - The spelling Be-li -Dtte-ab beside Be-li-da- 
ab (T^B, both Ur III), may possibly be read as Be-li-ta-ab . Cf. 
also the PN SI*AN -mu-da (MAD I p. 199, from Khafaje) which could 
be read as Tab»an-mu-da , in which the first element would express 
the deified river D/Taban. Cf. PN's listed under DBN? in MAD III. 

P. 100 No. 240. .- For the syllabic value v SUH = suj^ in Ur 
III cf. A-suh KI (CT IX 19 iii 7+, Ur III) = GIS U-sufa ,-(KU) KI 
(Legrain, TRU 367, Ur III) = asufau -tree. 

P. 102 No. 255. - AHAR has the syllabic values marad and 

* KI KI 

mar in the spellings of the GN AMR , AMAR-da from PSarg. to 

Ur III, as can be recognized from the purely syllabic spellings 

Mar-da K I (BIN VIII 67:4; 68:12, 32); Ma-ra-ad KI (Bab. VII PI. 

XX No. 5, Ur III), and Ma-ra-ad (YOS IV 66, Ur III). Cf. also 

d (A)MAR.UTU = ^te-ru-duk . The oldest ref. to d (A)MAR.UTU known 

to me is found in YOS IX 2, PSarg. 

P. 105 No. 266. - Another exception to DI = di in Sarg. is 

found in DINGIR-Da-di (TMH V 29 vi x+ 3). 


P. 10? No. 273. - For a syllabic value of PAP = gad cf . the 
spellings of the GN Pad-bi-ra (YOS 1 4 iii, PSarg.) with Bad-bi-ra 
(UET III 1454, Ur III), and Bad-bi-ra (VAS'II 1 iii 12, OB), the 
latter in parallel context with bAd-URUDU.NAGAR KI (BE XXX 1 iii 
10, OB) according to Falkenstein, ZA LIU 102 n. 40* 

P. 108 No. 275. - If ES = sin is to be taken as a syllabic 
value then its oldest attestation is found apparently in the PN 
Nu-ur-Sin (Barton, HLC II PI. 95, HI rev. 8, Ur III). 

P. 109 No. 277a. - For the identity of LAL.RIN with LAL.RIN 
cf. Lugal -LAL.RIN (CT I 3 rev. i 1, 1; III 42:142, both Ur III) 
with Lugal -lJL.RIN (BIN V p. 9, Ur III), Lugal -LAL.RIN-mu (BIN 
VIII p. 39) with Lugal-LAL.RIN-mu (Nikolski, Dok. II 67:3), En- 
LAL.RIN-ri (DP 143 i 2, PSarg.) with |to-LAL.RIN-ri (DP 137 v 11, 
PSarg.), etc. For LAL.SAR see just below. 

P. 109 No. 27oa. - For the syllabic value usar , usur of 
ilL.SAR = LAL.SAR cf. ID.LAL.SAR (BIN VII 172:6, OB) with fo.LAL. 
SAR (Barton, HLC I PI. 37 i 7; MCS VIII ^55 HSM 6377, both Ur III), 
ID U-sur (ITT II/l £66 and 893, Ur III), I D U-sur-ra (ITT V p. 6l, 
9980, Ur III) and I P U-sar-ra (ITT V 9638, Ur III); a-sa LAL.SAR 
(BE IIJ 127:11, Ur III) with gan LAL.SAR (RTC 68 iii; 69 iii, 
both PSarg.) and a-sa U-sur (MCS VIII 50, Ur III). 

P. 109 No. 280. - In favor of the syllabic value RIN = rin 
cf. the FN E-ga-rin (TMH V 59 i 3), E-ga-rin-a (BIN VIII 191:6), 
E-ga-rin-na (BIN VIII 184:19; 188:5; 195:17), and the discus- 
sion on p. 212 No. 226 and p. 212 No. 295a. 

P. 109 No. 283. - Eor the syllabic value PU = jdu cf. pos- 
sibly the PN Su-gu-pu (Ur III unpubl., from Sollberger) and a-sa 
Pu-da-uz (MCS VII 21, Ur III), the latter comparable in structure 
to the PN Pu-ma-uz (MAD I 288). 

P. 110 No. 290. - For the syllabic value KU = gufc in Sum. 
cf. p. 212 No. 240. 

P. Ill No. 290. - For the value NIR = ri^ cf. the discussion 
on p. 211 No. 175. 

P. 112 No. 295a. - ?or the syllabic value ERIN = rin cf. 
the PN ERIN- da-ni (BIN VIII p. 35; ITT I 1465:4) with Ri-in-da- 
ni (R^M) and the FN E-ki -ERIN-na (BIN VIII 191:2) with E-ki- 

rin-na (BIN VIII 192:6, 11; etc.), Cf. also p. 212 No. 226 and 
p. 213 No. 280. 

P. 113 No. 300. - For NIN = in cf. d NIN-in (Fara II 1 iv 
18) and d NIN-nin (Barton, HLC II PI. 87 No. 89 ii, Ur III), dis- 
cussed by Gelb in JNES XIX ?6 No. 3. Cf. also d NIN- dugud = d In - 
dugud (from Imdugud), discussed by Falkenstein in ZA LII 62, 

P. 115 No. 310. - For the syllabic value UR = das/des in 
Ur III cf. ^ HB-das/des-tun^ (PBS XV 28:1, 3, not E-ur^tum, as in 

TT) v 
ZA LI 71 and MAD III 8) = HE-di-is-tum (OECT IV 162 ii 15) and 

E-di-es-tum (II R 31/2:2) in later periods. 

P. 116 No. 312. - For A. AN = am cf. also Am-na-ni-tum (Op- 

penheim, CCTE PI. II TT 4, Ur III, not A-an-na-ni-tum as ibid. 

pp. lifl and 180). 

P. 117 No. 317. - The syllabic value HA = gir is apparent 

'HU KI '"* 

from the occurrence of HA-gi. -lu e (TMH V 24:4, PSarg.), which 

* KI 
was read as Ha-gi, -lu-fau by Pohl (op. cit. p. 28). The GN 

Girgilu is usually spelled with the sign GIR (= gA.GUNU), as in 

Lu-Gir-gi^-lu K I (TMH n. F. I/I I p. 21) or d Nin-Gir~gi. -lu (TCL V 

6053 i 24). For signs without GUNU, such as QA, having the same 

value as those with GUNU, such as GIR, cf.. e. g. SAG and SAG*GUNU 

with the value zur (Nos. 87 and 179)* The occurrence with the 

geographic indicator HU shows that the GN Girgilu is connected 

with the word girgilu denoting a bird. For parallels cf. 

LA.BUR.§IR KI ^ (S ii and above p. 45) and UD.NUN 60 KI (Nikolski, 

Dok. I 282 ii). 


P. 120. '- Such spellings as na-ah-ba- C ru-um 3 , na-afa- 

ba-ar (pR?) and na-ba-ru-um (° BR?); ( Dan- ) La-ak- [ ma-at ] and 

^ V V 

( Dan- ) La-ma-at (LgM); (La-) ba-a 3 -sum (B=^S), (La-) ba-afa-sum 
(B D gS), and Ba-afe-sum (BQS?); ra-a-pum (R^B) and ra-&a-bu-um 
(TA 1930, 439, Ur III); Bir -faa-sum , etc. (PR^S); and Si-ir- 
fea-num etc. (SRH), may be interpreted in two ways: a real pho- 
nemic alternation of ^ and ]i or a graphemic representation of 
laryngeals and pharyngeals by signs containing the consonant ]j. 

P. 120. - For another example of m > n cf . simtl > 
sinti in ( A-bi- ) si-im-ti (Jones and Snyder, Sumerian Economic 
Texts from the Third Ur Dynasty No. 288:4) - ( A-bi-)si-in-ti (No. 
277: 9, hoth from Umma). 


P. 125. - Once also I-ri-sum in Sargonic (Met. 86.11.134, 
from Sollberger). 

P. 128. - Another good example from the Sargonic Period 
occurs in ( en-ma Na-as-ru-um a-na Ses-ses ) a-bi (Leningrad 
Hermitage No. 14387:3).' 

P. 129. - In the PN f s I-la-ag-nu-id , I-la-ag-nu-id , E-la- 
ag^nu^id, DINGIR- la-ag-nu-[i3 d t Nu-id-I-la-ag (all under N^D), 
E-la-ag-ku-ru-ba , E-la-gu-<ru->ub , I-la-ag-ku-r[u-ub 3 , Ku-ru-ub- 
t-la-ag , Kur-ru-ub-E-la-ag % Ku-ru-ub-bi-la-ag , Kur-bi-la-ag , Kur- 
bi-lag (KRB), and E-la-ag-su-kir , I-la-ag-su-kir , E-la-ag-su-gir 
( 3 /rQ R ), ^ have regularly interpreted the element composed with 
the Imperatives nu 3J id < kurub , and suqir as the DN Hag, Slag, 
comparable to HC-ia-gu in Deimel, PB No. 843, in contrast to von 
Soden, who interpreted Hag, Elag as ilak, elak "your god'* (cf. 
my discussion in BO XII 104). Note against von Soden's interpre- 
tation that the pronominal suffix - ka is never abbreviated to -k 
in Old Akk. , that the form ila before pronominal suffixes is un- 
known, as far as I know, in any stage of Akk., and that the name 
Elag in Kur-ru-ub-E-la-ag is written with the LA sign never 
attested in the hundreds of names of the Sargonic and Ur III 
Periods containing the element ilum or the like. In favor of 
von Soden* s interpretation note the spellings I-la-ka-su-ki-ir 
(TCL XXIX 32a 8, Mari) = DINGIP -ka-su-ki-ir (32b 8) = I-la-ak- 
su-kir (28:7). 

P. 132. - Another example is to be found in the PN which I 
read as f*I~l-dur-si-na-at (Geneva MAH 16229) in MAD III 293 and 
which Dr. Sollberger prefers to read as fll-is-hur-si-na-at , -On 
Ace. forms with an Abl. function cf. Jacobsen in JNES XIX (i960) 
101-116 and von Soden in Orient, n. s. XXX (1961) 156-162, 

P. 140. - Cf . p. 129. 

P. 143. - Eor the -us morpheme cf. also the Ur III GN 
Bi-ig-mu-us-dan . 

P. 144. - A case of the pronominal suffix -su abbreviated 
to -s could possibly be found in Pu-us(-ki-in) (discussed on p. 
143)i occurring beside Pu-su(-ki-in) , both in Ur III. 


P. I*f6 » - Note that ba-.-. -u-la-ti may be PI. and na-ak-da- 
ma-at (belov) may be Sg. 

P. 151* - Important for the discussion of - na-da are the 
occurrences of ( Ki-zum-) na-da (VAS IX 226 :*f, OB), showing - na-da 
to be a Stative (and not Impv.), and of ( Um-mi-)na-da (MLC 1184, 
OB, from Dr. Finkelstein) , showing that - na-da can appear with a 
Masc. subject. 

P. 152. - From the PSarg. Period we have NIN- pa-da (BIN 
VIII 38:^). 

P. 165. - With the unique ni-se .. .. -bi-lam in Sarg. , instead 
of nus|bilam, cf. EN.ZU -i-se-zi (CT IV 37c 16) in OB, instead of 
-uses! .' For similar forms in later periods cf • Gurney in Ana- 
tolian Studies X 131 n. to VI 2. 

P. 171. - On the Subj. in the Diyala texts of the Sargonic 
Period cf . Jacobsen in JNES XIX llOf . and Kienast in Orient, n. s. 
XXIX 152f . On the important parallel use of the morpheme -a in 
EA texts cf. Moran in Orient, n. s. XXIX 1-19. 

P. 176. - See discussion on p« 211 No* 179. 

P. 186. - For the root cf. possibly I^-i 3 ? "to prevail" in 
Ugaritic (Gordon^ Ugaritic Manual p. 283a). 

P. 188. - Pret. izzaz (in the form la-za-az ) occurs also 
in MA, as noted by J. Lewy in Orient, n. s. XXVIII 356. 

P. 188. - The difficultcase of i-BJ- na-ma could possibly be 
resolved by the reading i-de-na-ma and interpreting PN 1 u FNp 
i-de-na-ma as "FN- and PNp started a lawsuit," in accordance with 
parallels quoted in CAD III 103. 

P. 191. - For the root ^j° 7 see just above. 

P. 192. - For the root cf . possibly TB= "to depart" in 
Ugaritic (Gordon, Ugaritic Manual p. 332a) and "to follow" in 

P. 195. - Add: f. Ur. Vase. Akk. Woolley, UE IV p. .168 
U. 263. 

P. 196. - Add: q. Ur. Mace-head. Akk. Wooley, UE IV p. 
167 U. 207; and s. Ur. Vase. Akk. Wooley, UE IV p. 168 U. 26*f. 

P.. 196. - Add: 6 b. Ur. Vase. Akk. Wooley, UE IV p. 171 

u. 3291. 


P. 196. - Add: 8, Ur. Mace-head. Wooley, OE IV p. 185 U. 
16532; and 9. Ur. Bowl. Wooley, UE IV p. 185 U, 18308. 

P. 199. - Add: 13. Ur. Vase. Wooley, UE IV p. 168 U. 282; 
lif. Ur. Mace-head. Wooley, UE IV p. .168 U. 284-, uncertain; and 
15* Ur. Mace-head. Wooley, UE IV p. 185 U. 16531. Dedication 
to d KA.DI. 


The sign list given below contains a representative sampling 
of different sign forms excerpted from tablets of one period and 
one area only. The period in question is the Sargonic Period of 
the time of Naram-Sin and Sar-kali-sarrl. The area represented 
is the sites of "Tell Asmar and Khafaje in the Diyala Region. 

The list is limited to signs excerpted from tablets which 
are at my disposal at the University of Chicago. The sign list 
is consequently not complete, as it does not include all the signs 
and variant forms used in the Sargonic Period. For signs missing 
from this list the old and reliable Thureau-Dangin, Recherches 
sur l'origine de l'ecriture cunei forme (Paris, 1898-1899) should 
be consulted. 

The first draft of the sign list was prepared by Mr. Jjrfrgen 
Laess^e in January, 1950, on the basis of my compilation of sign 
forms drawn with pencil from original sources. The draft here 
published differs from the first draft in certain details; some 
signs were added, some, very few, were redrawn, and the numera- 
tion of signs was changed to conform with that used in von Soden, 
Das akkadische Syllabar (Roma, 1948) and the Syllabary reproduced 
above on pp. 47-118. The additions and corrections were drawn by 
Miss Elizabeth Bowman, 

The following abbreviations are used in the sign list: 
A = Oriental Institute tablets. Two collections of tablets are 
listed: 1) A 7739-7892 (= MAD I 270-336) contains tablets 
clandestinely excavated by the villagers at Tell Asmar and 
later acquired by the Oriental Institute from a dealer in 
antiquities. 2) A 22011-22045 (- scattered under MAD I 
206-266) contains tablets from Khafaje allotted to the 
Oriental Institute. 


FM = Field Museum Tablets. The Museum numbers FM 229201- 

229254- are quoted in this list in the abbreviated form as 
201-254. The texts have been published in my Old Akkadian 
Inscriptions in Chicago Natural History Museum (Chicago, 

TA = Tell Asmar field numbers, seasons 1931 to 1934* The texts 
have been published in MAD I 1-195* 


1. «>- AS 

3«» *W AS&A.& 

M. *£? PA 

5. >^nr ZO 

6. *t£R SU 

8. n%$ BALA 

10. df[ff BUR 

11 • ^ TAR 

,2 - ^ AN 

15. ►Qtf W 
««. (CA+KIP 

See No. A76 

ij r /ifSr^ amojo; y/|){-^ w m, <o a, a } l /[mf^ fm w 



21. *J§i NA6 

22. ►fcJT URU 
23c. >fcfrtfWW*A 
23<C. *fcf<T»TASARU 

25- ►fc±y ARAD 

25a- 4H ARAJ> 

^ A WW; 5<f A 777*; ^f- A 7r75 iii 


A tilt, ;3gf A 7«W; 3if a m* 

►^ a w^ HfJ TA m% > t 

*-$*-$ A 7SFI «; HK^ W W3 '. *•* ! 
^- A Tin,}*- A WW ; £ A MOtt 

P^fe- A 7765 ; 4H- AWJ7 ; *"^ AW " 

J^zf A W«i; j|£=f FM «•* 

61$. 4^)4 A77W 

Ht^ A W5; A 7797; Klfg4f A 7tti bis ««. 

A ttii. nv. ; TAW1, M, St 
FM *M li 
t£J A TOT; ffj A 7797; f^T A 7«0 

^f A £2047 

►£Xf A *M<2; <|£X A777T; «-§^ A7«»; FM*S3 
»|£*r A 7«75; frj^T FH VH 

25b. ?&? ,„' 


27- ^ LA 

2S. (^ apin 

29. >Q[ MAH 

30 - *&( W 

31. t^[ t| 

31. 4^. fAB 

33. A- 4r MUN X 

35. 6-4^ MU 

3fc. # W 

3». ^ 611. 

13. *tf NA 

1?. K? KWWM 

A 7779 

^ A 77*5; ^- A 7*«5 

Sum* ^~iff-^r fm *m, ^IIPT m »oi » bu, iii ; 

«^=>i PH 1W i (?)j cf. also hk.371 

a rm } l^pi AinHj ■™ pji fh jw 

A WW; TA 1931, 40 Vi; t'U T TA 1931, 10 
+§2$$ TA 1931, 3; ^^ A 7*53; *fejl 
»^A7m j W^A7«1 
$$^X A 77S7; 'W^^{ A Wl; A Wi 
£< TA 1*31,30 ii 
*>£< TA 19H, 716 i; FM M 

>$•$> A 777Z; >#f A 777» ; >^£ A MOia, A ZM30 
<f A 7W, p$ A 7«« p »«,m 
|p3* TA mi, 11$ H. *f>|jt FH MM 
fC A 776¥; # A 7W; jfr A 7*39 W«; S' A im a 
M^ A 7£60 Hi; *4,*4>A 7«»; K" A 2W; r^-4 TA *93*, I; 

K^* A 776<f ; *<^ A **»*; ,J^ A W9 } >4£ A *W; 

>4" FM »* 

<^4 A 711$ Mi- e^ A «05|. inf^ FM if 3 tn ft 






Xl< n 

>-f- BAR 


^4i MAS 

53. tf*M U 5 

54. >#[^ MAM 

55. ofcW M 
59. tfUfc Zl 

«<- »T7<T *i 


£- A77«; V_ TA<93i,*7 

^f- A 776? 

Bf ^<ll A ttOjW and A »0W; 5ffi£f<^ TA <9M, $0 Wff f 

*^ A 7747; *fy * W "; ^ ™ «W 

HH£> A turn 

>4^f A 77*6; tf«f A 7*15; <f*T A 7*39; «*^f A *«*■ 
«f^f A 7**5 rev. 

*fcTJJ A 7m ; •fajn TA *&,% xl^ff ™ M> ™ Mj 
**^ 9 - a 7m, ***%£& ntso. a nm } 

►SK| A W3»; » Bf j A 19ot } 3 j A WM i; 

*M8® A7«tj A7«S9 ; A7«Jrev.,6fc ; £j^pJ( A7H3; 
«tT M TA<Mf,<OA,ff ; r«HSK TA W4,7 

T**r2# A 77*; p^ A*m,&3g FHJM 
►Hs^f A7«5ff; 4fc-f TA Wf,fOA, W 

«. >Wf- NUN |<*F A Wl; IfR A 1M prtm, iff— T * »**i 

63*. P^<n TOR 
64. *W #»& 

67. H[ GADA 

fP^f A 7797; ^>Tfm »f:7 

A 2101 5 j A XWSO 

k£ TA f93f, 7*6 ij 

67a- ^^W AKKIL it #f TA 1931, it A, ft 

676. ^nwSHnf umbin HCIU fm aof ilj#fflT A-wft- 




>&> ™ 




•jferfF AG 


^ £N 



73. ^ SUR 

74. frf^SUH 

75. ^1 INNIN 

76. ^fl£ SA 

*-$*£> A 77« ; ^v^ A 7W3; <$><*> FM WZ 

FM #3 

A 777* ; »ff- TA 4931, 4 A, » ; ►^Jf- FM 406 

^^ A Wf ; f — JP A WOK »V ; J-tJII A M031; 

TA 1931, 40 \U 
*$* TA 19?1, it A, \t> *fy> FM Mt 
/^-f A 7m ; A 7m ; f^f FM 2W: 26 
f^ff A777y. ^f-TA7?13 
fiHI A 7767. |||{[ A 77<?6. EE A 77** ; 







79. 4^ 

». etf^lT PAR 

84. £JT 6UR 

85. >F4T SI 

87. «f^ SAG 

w. •54IT ma 

Wtf. *#!?*& uz 

90. £z TAB 

92. fc& §UM 

93. ftf A0 
«*■ /IB+A5 

95. &f wf MUL 

96. £g£ UG 


^5t7 FM tt* 

fm sm feu 

A 7*09; 

A 7«37 

<=*(£>* A »0*6 i ; f=t^> TA Mi, * A/1 to 

^f A 77*7; 'pf A 7««; ^ A TOY; ^flf A 7«« 

£+H A 776V; tf^f A7«S; *^-I TA f9M,*30 

Tl A 7767; A 7795; "£J AttOfV K 

*jf TA Mi, 40 A, it «nd iH } $k FM M fa. FM %%% 

Ts§=3 A 7767; A 77*5; rfj=f FM »2 

^ TA \M , 10 vi ; *fyj[ TA <931, *i A, «; fff FM *W 
>$lg A 7«07 ; A 7W b ; *Jffig: TA 19H, 1 A, It 
£T flF A 7«V; £? If A 7*61; FM U< iri$ 
Pi A 7779; A 7W i« 

S^^- a im } £&$> a 7m 7 a im> 

X&^P TA*W, i%A t fH 
lEX^U A no%0) TA 1932, 7 

A 779*5 FM 206; FM 245 

&r ^ A Wtt } ^ g£ ^ FM 213 

If A #03* to. jgfj| FM *3¥ 


egr az 




>W «* 






*£!? TA 


^ I 


^ H^ 


&£p i>UMU 


$& AP 


P=Nl 2E 





eS^ ezen 






gfc KAS 


fc^ fiWA 


ffj A no«f ; FM lit; pfj FH 2ff 

A 776<f ; g=jU A777Z; Pgj|| A 7 «? 
A 7«f } A 7*61 rw, £0 A7*6<f 
££>f A W«; £l£>\ A Wf to 
S=£ A 7767; |E£ TA mi, 1 A, Vk 

£$E^ A7m ; S^fe A**©*o 

£>^ A 77<« ; fe; A 7*6i p«rim ; f^P A 7«3 p*fm- 
fcf^<f A 7767; &£$ A 7*#; £f£=E{ A 7*60 ii 
£f=£^ A 7m ; S£3? A 7*19; £33fJ" TA 1931,30 W. 

**" 0^ «S»^ > A 777£ 

I fMfch ***; y/VjjjfN, TA mi, 6 A, « 

tfjf A 7*16; TA 1931, 30 iv } FMJ231 
p|*E=f FMZ03; FMi06 

*ff a 7*j9 ; pii a 7w ; ^^ a im 

0^ A noilj A 22039 

£3$? A ttOii; £=^ FM m } J^H TA 1W1, 716 i 

m. sfcSf epin 





m fc4WT ai 



(28a. fc^I UNU6 

129 £*£$ kum 

133 . t^ff kaV 

135. fi^y PU 

A 7*W «i; A 7*91; 


«^><t>f FH1W 

t$> A 7*07; £$?> A W7* ii_j P$" FM »*:M 
•^^Pf A 777<f ; ^*=f A 7«13 ; S$>f=J FM M¥; 

|$£=r fh m bit 

FM 2M to i A 7?77 
SAM E^^W A 7*M ; TA 1931, 4 


Pl& ut 

TA mi, 4 A, fl 
fZZ^ TA19M, «A,*3 
<^~/ A 7T«»; £f f~^ A 7«00 ; ££} A 7M 

B &f===5 T TA <93<, «A,3; JBffl£Hi|=£f A 7«W 
R^^^f a«i R|£^f TA<9«,9, H$%=£# f««W 
J^SfA 7797; p=5f A7«M, £Z«J FM 13* 
&3J £^T A77M; |§ fMlft 
tM &f=^ A 7761; ljH# = -^' A 7*7? i 

A 7*07 

A7*S<a <mi tntM} 

A «W<9; fig TA VM, \ A, r p*«im 
f£2|A7«07, ^Pjf A7*«* ; ££f rA<9K,«A,<; flF(f FM*10:< 










^ A 1171; ^g A 7«3; ||§ A 7«2 ; ^^ FM «1 
&*$> * W»; pfflf^ A7WV; A "Mi; f*> ATM; 
»^J> A 7863 

" A 7*00; TA 1W1, l 

^lf IS 

S??# MS 
pp GA6 
&£ NI 

p ffMfT AMA 


FM atMot 8 frlS 

fJ^AIMM; C^FM2<* 

fJfXj' fm i« r 19 

f> A 7fW ; - £> TA W1; < A,tt 

£f> A 77fr* ; j£> A 7*99 

^P 8 ^ A 77*9; A 79tf ; fc> A 7*«$. W^ TA <99<,47 

fc <E" T A 777V; FM 2*0 

j ff «^ T A 79S1 «,; fe=F=r A 7*60 » bis 

{ElJ A77tf bi» ; jfrWWf A 7«tf, /RiBf FM JIM j, »f 

TA09I, 90 r ; TA <99f,*A,9 
ffl A 7797; fcjt VMM, 1** 

P^A7«5 ; * ® A 7*7*. 7 

CZJ A. 77**; f f A 7960 NT 
AW jl^fcjj A7W ; TAW, Tlfeil 

159a. £ft 6UP 
<60. XUL. AL 





























%fy A iW; a %mo 

fcjfc^t A 777Z; *lFp>f A WW; A 7*Mj 
«#=|fc^T A 7*6f 

5^ A 7767; £<^ A 77»* ; J^f TA <9*,1 
£[£- A 7W* ; tTtf A 7163 

flfc tf?T* GA 



A 777«( 5 pjf A IfT^a rev. 
^> A 7*66 («#;*; £#> A to*VS } 

fifty TA <W,*M, 41 pA««m 

^^M A 7^ («t«»(n; HE^*^ FNStt 
fjff=f A 7**0; A U0S1 y + 5, 6; fjff^ FH 20< 

pm £«. pp^rr a 7m ; HNL f a im 


A MO*? h* 
A 776f ; |J| A 7*02 ; llfc A 7fftT W; 

A 7WK bfr; SE fM W; pp.1»Mf,9f» 

A 776*; A 77«; A 7*60 ii ; 
A tt©» iV biV 

A 7*69 ii. 

tfff* JEH "- ^rf A 77**; ^^=T A 7 m p„«m ; 
#g£=4 ™ »(j ffi^pj TA mt , * A, 1 V " 


172. &flf< SUKKAL 
«3. fcflf PAN 

a nmi 




m. g£ff«A 





191. . 






££T^ A 7W, f£fc£ A W« rev.; £E4> A W*; 
f^f^. A tt©3* 

f^ r A 1767 ; B^ A 7W - lgH A 7«a j 

fifflFf A W5<| trfcj pll| A 7*6* bis 

Sjj A Wtj ^TJ A 77% (f[ A Wa ; f^Ej A 7*66; 
t=$\ FHtHi'.t 

A 1W; Jg^ ^flP^ FM Mf 


A 7*61 rev. ; A 7*6¥; 
A77«5 A 7*44 

A Wiy 

A W«f re* ; 

A 7m ; ^ A 7W1 re* ; P^* A WW ; P(| >C A Wf 
P^^f A 7767. jP<t A Iff* 

^$H?jJ SlMUG ^^J A OMO;^ 

FM *43 

§Kfl PA 



^SR A 1765. JPI A 1TO. Jp<T A W 
ff A W«H; |fl A ItSH; fH A WW; A W« 

mh a w; •jy a in*; t^j ™ «*» < A > if <r8$ 








i>- GAL 


19*. ^H^ MIR 


A 176S"; fj- FM 2*6 

A 7*72 




0% KIP 7 


eft= Lt/L 


^ «Att 


|« MR 


# se 





KIR ^ A Wf ; /^ A 7975- ii, Hi 

Tpzf A 7*7? Hi; FM 231; ^Tfc^f A 1W1 

TA 1*31, 30 ii, vj' y -TA 1931, 4 A, 2 i 
jjjjf- A 7*75" i 

A WH; ^RP^ A 7S92; V^| A 2202& i; 

a Tin, ^>r ^ w«t «*; ^ tawi,i> 

TA 1931, 1 A , % vf; f|>T TA iM, 11 A,** 

^f A 77*5; § A 7S7« <t ; /If fM 132 
A im s A 7791 ; i^X FM 206 
FM 101 (, U, Hi 
|$F > ' A 7*1* ; A %%0U iii ; tfyfif^ TA f*31, 1A, 3* 
f<( A 7W1 

Z" A WW; TA W2, H 
*$fo A 776<tj $$ FM ^0 
$^f$^ W 101 J, iii 

m. ^ff< Mi/5 

2<2. #T TE 

221 $\ UP 

223. i\*~ WA 

225. *T&0f OH 
227a. ty$ KUNUZ 

229. 4[ H' 

234. 4Mff AH 

235. 4jf-< KAM 
236 ^Mf- IM 

23S. 4Q*!= JJAK 
2**2. < u 

$<y*— A77«¥ ; TA1952,* 

WW ta \w % so < 3 3S^44T PM *** 

><>* WW 

^ A 787r i ; $T TA m<, « i; $> TA W<, *< Hi bfc, SO U; 
<£* FM fclf 3 tp* *1 M«i<^ TA m*, 4 A, 3 

K^ A 776f; A 7*1*; K^ A 12013; K^ TA 1931, i *, U> 

Vt=l$ A7*H; ^ p^T FM«W; ^ FMSW 

$f- A 1767) ^f- A »Otf ; TA «31 , %K iv ; *F TA 1931, (0 A , ih 
$ fA Mi, i A, <* <W$; TA mi, i A, £6- & FM JM 

^^T A 1*0*9 it 

>§> A 7*09; A 7*</a 

4y> A7*tf; A 7«t; JC£> A 7**9; <£* FM ttl 

A 7765 ; *$> A 7*61 rev, ; <^ FM ii*z 

J^> A «« trisj ^ A7S72 

g^HFf A 77«j P$- A 7tf<6 ; ff£>4f A 7IH, &£*# A 7*56; 

A 7*7* < 

£fp- A 7167; £j^> A 7171; «^ A 77*V; ^ A 7«S4 
< A r\W y A 7*61; < A noWj < FMH5 


2HM. <£ M 

^> A WW: fr ) <£> A WSO ftstitn 

2MHa. <£Ja «TUL 

2M8. <J£l HI 

2M9. <^3I * UL 

«. 4^J NIM 

254. <£9T tAM 
25ff. <S3 AHAR 

256. 4JEJ WW 

257. 4^£jf <5IM 

255. <£t*UL 
a5» <^ GIR 

2a <]p- let 
MX- <HfflL *? 

263. ^Mf(T AK 

2fcH* <^BT u 

2tfc. <f*£ J>1 

A 7«*<( > <&j$f A *1016 I 

£$" A1W; £Z^ A 7*<tf; ff^> TAWI,! A, f p^v, 

*W~ FH *H ii(j %>— TA 1931, 12 A, 18 
fJP=T FH-ttf:? 

<p£> A 7«t ; <p£* ta mi, <*A t io 

See No. 137b 

<F- A 77tt ; <]^ TA Mi ,ifii,ih 

<rf[ a 7m 

<HHT A 7739; ^pfrf A 2102? 

<T4p A *««; <p-^ A7W0K, <F^ Aft««}AT^- TA Wl, « 

<f-Jl A 7*U ; A 7*7**,. <P$S A 7*W:*,« 

<ff{ A 7*07 ; <f{H A W«a ; <£- J| A WW9 

^ A 7W 

269. <JB Kl 

270. <$£ pin 

m - <ff KUG 

276. I £S, 

A 776f 

i$> TA«S<, M,3x+ii ; 4) 

>t f 

4*1111111 I , 

^T*^ FH2JU; fMXWj cf, also Wo. 26 
^ A 77*4 ; WW. ^ a 7*39 
fflf A77*2 ; TA fW ( 41A,4t 
T A 7W j ATMS} Kh. 493H, 59 i; FM 201, always in ES^-dar 

w r~ lal r~ 

^ £J KIL 
^ SI 2AR 

«• S?6ANA Mj 

2 « 3 ' W* 

A 7779; A 7791 

2?7. 7»~ ME 
290. JUJ KU 


232. J@I LU 

£J A**027j,ff' 


A*W«. A 22029 

j5f AWff/ A 22027 it* A 2202s bus; A 22023 passim; 

ftf A 7771 bis 

£~ A WW; ftf'20*:« 

T1BhT a mu) #=f a w; £§— r a nm » , iy *t ** 

0ATOS; PA 7?61 (* 

@ A WW lit; A 3*0*0; FM fift . fg FM *«f |*tfim ; *M tff 

f|f A77*7; ^rA(«l^ 5 J A 7191 

0A7797; £lMW,<A,*v, g| TA 19«, *A, 7f fe 







AWOtf. ^>{ PM«06(?) 
A 1779; PV , B A IfM b, A2Z0Jtf ; PI TA 1951, 7*7 
A 7*eo 

j^ MfrfrffTM « u *7 ^JKa>HBff-< A 7739; A 7«77 ; A &MI. FM «05 

^ A 7*«f ; $> TA 1931,414,1 
l^J^ A 7739; TA «51 f 3< iv 



ZUM+T06 l^p!§ FM %% 









4*^ jam 

^ 6U 
$$< 6EHE 
&< NA6AR 

^nr EL 

$*= LUM 
T? A 

ff 2* 

^pf A 77«<f ; $pf A 7879 

$>ff f A 7*11; (^"ft^ A 7«f ) A 7M; $jJ-4 FM 103 

fp*-^ A 776V; A 77*7 ; £>4^" A flUW; ^ FM «tf 

^ A 777*; ^< A im 

£x$-« a M03tO ; £><£< TA mt, ?o »X; ^<f< FM 204 

fi$ A 7*«1 

^g| A 7*07 ; ^ A Wj^^ A mt 

JObzT A 7*1*; #=f A 7*5<f . J^f-f A 21036 

ff A 77^ ; fj A 77*6 

T? P?T A llO**; A 11030; A WM x 

ft A 7767 



fC «A 






DU 5 

>\i A 7*1*; \^ A 7*7* ou ; A Mfi } ^ A MOM i; 
AIT FM 25* 

4> AWHy fy TA<m,30 W; ^Col.x; Jf FNVS06 

JB>- A «0^ bis 

pit? A Wlf j 0W A WIS, TA 49*, l ; JjFW FM 4m 

fr — y a iw 




TA 1951,4 A, 9 
f~ FM W 

d. REC W 


A 22030; IE* A 22033 5 jEggt A 22021